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Federation Revision

Description

9 Humanities Flashcards on Federation Revision, created by Vivi Grace on 11/04/2016.
Vivi Grace
Flashcards by Vivi Grace, updated more than 1 year ago
Vivi Grace
Created by Vivi Grace almost 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
How was Australia first politically run? > By a single governor who had autocratic (unrestricted) power.
Why was did Australia start off as an autocratic government? > Because it was a nation made up predominantly of convicts, and Britain considered the nation unfit for democracy.
When and why did Britain start considering allowing Australia to become a 'responsible government'? In the mid-nineteenth century, as transportation of convicts to Australia slowed, and the population of convicts and ex-convicts decreased.
What is a 'responsible government'? A government that is accountable to the representatives of the people.
What was Australia's first step towards a responsible government? The passing of the New South Wales Act of 1823 by British Parliament.
What did this act allow? It allowed members of the colony to play a limited role in the law-making process.
When was the first constitution created and what did it introduce? 1842, and it introduced limited voting rights and expanded the membership of the Legislative Council.
What were the main arguments against federation? > Protectionism (protect local industry from external competition) > Loss of colonial power (larger states take power, smaller states take tex income) > Great distances between all the colonies > The Labour movement (security of workers' rights) > Cheap labour (restriction of immigration of Pacific Islander workers) > Greater economic concerns (the Great Depression)
What were the main arguments for federation? > Development of Australian nationalism > Immigration restriction (desire to create a 'White Australia') > Security and defence (a stronger, more united defence force) > Free trade (removal of tariffs = cheaper for consumers) > Improved communications (connections between colonies = stronger political links) > Single railway network (easier to travel from colony to colony) > Support of Britain (Britain wanted to loosen control of its colonies by establishing responsible governments)
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