AQA A Urbanisation Flashcards

John Ditchburn
Flashcards by John Ditchburn, updated more than 1 year ago
John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn about 7 years ago
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GCSE and A Level AQA A GCSE Human Paper 2 (2 Changing Urban Environments) Flashcards on AQA A Urbanisation Flashcards, created by John Ditchburn on 03/29/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Urbanisation a process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities resulting in their growth
Rural-to-urban migration moving home from a rural area to settle in a town or city
Land use the type of buildings or other features that are found in the area, e.g. terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads, parks
Function the purpose of a particular area, e.g. for residential use, recreation or shopping
Central business district (CBD) the main shopping and service area in a city. The CBD is usually found in the middle of the city so that it is easily accessible
Inner city the area around the CBD – usually built before 1918 in the UK
Outer city or suburbs the area on the edge of the city. Many suburbs were built after 1945 and get newer as they reach the edge of the city
Household a person living alone, or two or more people living at the same address, sharing a living room
Brownfield sites land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city
Greenfield sites land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built-up area
Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) set up in the 1980s and 1990s using public funding to buy land and improve inner areas of cities, partly by attracting private investment
City Challenge a strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit a bid for funding, competing against other councils. They also had to become part of a partnership involving the local community and private companies who would fund part of the development
Regeneration improving an area
Sustainable community community (offering housing, employment and recreation opportunities) that is broadly in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life
Quality of life how good a person’s life is as measured by such things as quality of housing and environment, access to education, health care, how secure people feel and how happy they are with their lifestyle
Park-and-ride scheme a bus service run to key places from car parks on the edges of busy areas in order to reduce traffic flows and congestion in the city centre. Costs are low to encourage people to use the system – they are generally cheaper than fuel and car parking charges in the centre
Squatter settlements areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are built by people from any materials they can find on land that does not belong to them. They have different names in different parts of the world (e.g. favela in Brazil) and are often known as shanty towns
Informal sector that part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (e.g. taking in washing, mending bicycles) and which are not recognised in official figures
Self-help sometimes known as assisted self-help (ASH), this is where local authorities help the squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering finance in the form of loans or grants and often installing water, sanitation, etc
Site and service occur where land is divided into individual plots and water, sanitation, electricity and basic track layout are supplied before any building by residents begins
Industrialisation a process, usually associated with the development of an economy, where an increasing proportion of people work in industry
Disposal of waste safely getting rid of unwanted items such as solid waste
Landfill a means of disposing of waste by digging a large hole in the ground and lining it before filling it with rubbish
Recycling collection and subsequent reprocessing of products such as paper, aluminium cans, plastic containers and mobile phones, instead of throwing them away
Air pollution putting harmful substances into the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide
Transnational corporations (TNCs) companies that spread their operations around the world to try to reduce costs
Water pollution putting poisonous substances into water courses such as sewage, industrial effluent and harmful chemicals
Sustainable city an urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric are able to stand the test of time
Green belt land on the edge of the built-up area, where restrictions are placed on building to prevent the expansion of towns and cities and to protect the natural environment
Urban sprawl the spreading of urban areas into the surrounding rural/rural–urban fringe areas
Sustainability development that looks after future resources and considers the needs of future generations
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