ESS ecosystems (topic 2) vocab

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International Baccalaureate ESS Flashcards on ESS ecosystems (topic 2) vocab, created by jessica.f on 02/04/2014.

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Question Answer
Biome A collection of ecosystems sharing common climatic conditions
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) The total gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time by green plants
Net Primary Productivity (NPP) The total gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time by green plants, after allowing for losses to respiration.
Gross Secondary Productivity (GSP) The total gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time by consumers through absorption.
Net Secondary Productivity (GSP) The total gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time by consumers after allowing for losses to respiration.
Autotrophs Organisms that can make their own food
Heterotrophs Organism which obtain energy (food) from other organisms
Species Organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Population A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time
Habitat The environment where a species usually lives
Ecological niche The job of an organism. It includes every relationship the organism may have e.g where it lives, predators, competitors.
Community A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat
Ecosystem A community of interdependent organisms and the physical environment which they inhabit.
Biosphere The part of the Earth inhabited by humans.
Biotic factors Organisms or their products that directly or indirectly affect an organism and its envronment
Abiotic factors The non-living, physical and chemical components of an ecosystem
Food chain A representation of the flow of energy from one organism to the next, showing feeding relationships between species in an ecosystem.
Food web A complex network of interrelated food chains
Trophic level The position that an organism or a group of organisms in a community occupies in a food chain
Producer Green plants that make their own food from simple inorganic substances
Consumers Organisms which feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs to gain energy
Decomposers Organisms that obtain their energy using dead organisms as their food source
Detritivores Consumers that derive their food from detritus or decomposing organic material
Bioaccumulation A substance which can't be excreted or egested and increases in concentration through the food chain
Biomagnification Small amounts of a substance are taken in by organisms lower down in the food chain and are unaffected but when higher consumers eat large volumes of affected organisms, the substance can cause disease or death
Intraspecific competition Competition among members of the same species
Interspecific competition Competition between members of different species
Predation When one animal (predator) eats another animal (prey)
Herbivory An animal eating a green plant
Parasitism A relationship between two species, in which one species (parasite) live in or on another (host), gaining food from it.
Mutualism A relationship between two or more species in which both or all benefit and non suffer
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