Bismarckian Germany

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Germany and Bismarck

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Why were Prussia and Austria rivals in the early 19th century? Prussia was the only German state that could match the power and influence of the Austrian Empire. Austria opposed the idea of German unification as it saw this as a threat to its own empire. Although they were a minority, there was a significant percentage of German-speakers in the empire. If they broke away to join a unified Germany, Austria would be smaller and weaker.
For what two reasons was Austria weakened in the mid-19th century? 1) Austria refused to help Russia in the Crimean War against France and Britain (1854-56) and lost it as an ally. 2) Austria was defeated in a war against the French and northern Italian states. As a result, it had been forced to surrender some territories.
Why was Prussia strengthened in the mid-19th century? 1) Produced more coal and iron than Austria. Also promoted trade by making more rail-roads and train tracks. 2) Prussia had successfully set up an economic alliance (Zollverein) with other German states that made trade between states easier and more profitable.
Who was Otto Von Bismarck? He was the Chancellor of Prussia during the 1800s
What were Bismarck's primary aims? 1) Unify north German states under Prussian control 2) Weaken Austria by removing it as an economic superpower 3) Make Berlin the centre of affairs- not Vienna 4) Strengthen the position of the King of Prussia, William I, to counter the demands for reform from the Liberals in the Prussian parliament (the Reichstag).
How and why did Bismarck build up the Prussian army? Bismarck believed that the Prussian army needs to be stronger in case the unification led to war. After the Reich refused to give him money to do this, he took money from the general taxations
What measures did Bismarck take to weaken Austria? 1) Made allies with Russia by refusing to help Polish rebels 2) Made allies with France (Napoleon III) by promising to help it control Belgium 3) Made allies with Italy by exchanging Venezia for the support of Italy if Austria attacked Prussia
What was the 7-week war? The seven week war 1864-65 was a war between Austria and Germany on the states they claimed; Schleswig and Holstein
How did Bismarck isolate France before 1870? Bismarck used diplomacy to make sure the both Russia and Italy would not get involved in a war inflicted on France. He gambled, rightly, that Britain would not intervene.
What triggered the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71? After Spain offered its vacant crown to a relative of William I (of Germany), France was deeply worried. After Bismarck published a telegram insulting the French ambassador (speaking for the King) France declared war on Prussia.
What were the consequences of the Franco-Prussian war? 1) Napoleon III was overthrown 2) Unification of Germany was reached 3) Germany won Alsace Lorraine 4) France had to pay compensation of £200 million 5) William I was the Kaiser of the unified Germany, with Prussia at its control
What did the unification consist of? 39 independent German states under the control of Prussia
Biography: who was Otto Von Bismarck? Born on 1st April 1815 and died 1898. His father was a noble and mother was an academic. He served as a delegate to the new Prussian parliament, where he emerged as a reactionary voice against the liberal, anti-autocratic Revolutions of 1848.
Discuss Otto Von Bismarck's role as 'Iron Chancellor' -Bismarck was appointed chief minister in 1862 -In 1864 Bismarck began the series of wars that would establish Prussian power in Europe. He attacked Denmark to gain the German-speaking territories of Schleswig-Holstein and two years later provoked Emperor Franz-Josef I into starting the Austro-Prussian War (1866), which ended in a swift defeat for the aging Austrian empire. -Prussia levied an indemnity, annexed the French border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine and crowned William emperor of a unified Germany (the Second Reich) in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles—a tremendous insult to the French.
Translate KULTURKAMPF Culture Battle/ culture war
How did Kulturkampf play a role in Bismarckian Germany? For much of the 1870s Bismarck pursued a Kulturkampf (cultural struggle) against Catholics, who made up 36 percent of Germany’s population, by placing parochial schools under state control and expelling the Jesuits.
What were Bismarck's welfare policies? -In the 1880s Bismarck set aside his conservative impulses to counter the socialists by creating Europe’s first modern welfare state, establishing national healthcare (1883), accident insurance (1884) and old age pensions (1889). -ended the “Scramble for Africa,”
How did losing Wilhelm I (William I) from power lead to the abandonment of Bismarck? In 1890 the new king forced Bismarck out. Wilhelm II was left in control of a flourishing unified state but was ill-equipped to maintain Bismarck’s carefully manipulated balance of international rivalries
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