Biology vocab

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International Baccalaureate Biology Flashcards on Biology vocab, created by jessica.f on 04/06/2014.

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Question Answer
Magnification How many times bigger the image is when compared to the object
Resolution The minimum distance apart that two objects can be seen for them to appear as separate items
Gene expression The genes that are 'switched on' when cells differentiate
Stem cells Cells that have the capacity to self-renew by cell division and differentiate
Prokaryotic cell A cell without a nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic cells A cell with a nuclear membrane and membrane organelles
Diffusion The passive transport of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration as a result of kinetic energy
Passive transport No energy is required and only kinetic energy of molecules is used
Active transport Requires external energy as molecules are moved against the concentration gradient
Equalibrium When the concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane. Net movement stops but molecules are always moving
Facilitated diffusion Diffusion with the use of a carrier protein which changes shape and passes the substance across the membrane
Osmosis The net movement of water through a partially permeable membrane from a solution of -ve to more -ve water potential.
Cohesion The binding together of 2 molecules of the same type
Adhesion The binding between different polar molecules
Organic A molecule containing carbon-hydrogen bonds
Condensation reaction A reaction that produces water
Hydrolysis reaction A reaction that uses water
Esterification The formation of ester bonds
Semi-conservative replication Half of the new DNA strand is from the original strand
Gene A sequence of nucleotides coding for a particular protein
Triplet code The nucleotides read in threes, it is a universal code, non-overlapping and degenerate.
Genome The complete set of an organisms base sequence
Mutation A change in the nucleotides of DNA (in the base pair)
Non-disjunction When the chromosomes, at the metaphase stage of meiosis, fail to seperate
Genotype The genetic make up of an undividual
Phenotype The features of an individual that result from gene expression
Homozygous Having 2 identical alleles of a gene
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a particular gene
Dominant allele An allele whose effects always show in the phenotype, even in a heterozygous individual
Recessive allele An allele whose effects only show when there is no dominant allele
Co-dominant allele An allele whose effects both show in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual
Multiple allele A gene that has more than 2 allelic forms
Locus The position of a gene on a chromosome
Allele One form of a gene
Recombinant DNA This involves the combination of DNA from one organism and the DNA of another
Restriction enzyme These 'cut' DNA at specific base sequences within their molecules
Ligase enzymes An enzyme that controls the joining together of the plasmid and the end of the gene
'Sticky ends' The 'sticky ends' of a plasmid and gene are complimentry
Vectors A gene carrier. Plasmids are vectors.
Host The bacterium which houses the vector
Clone A group of genetically identical organisms
Glycogenesis Increasing the rate at which glucose is converted to glycogen
Glycogenolysis Activation of enzymes in the liver that convert glycogen into glucose
Gluconeogenesis Activation of enzymes that covert amino acids and glycerol into glucose
Junk DNA DNA that doesn't code for proteins
Introns Sequences of DNA that are transcribed but not translated
Exons Sequences of DNA that are transcribed and translated
Promoter Region of DNA where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription.
Translation When the RNA is read to make a polypeptide or a protein.
Polysome Numbers of ribosomes translating the same RER at the same time
Anabolic Building of large molecules from smaller ones
Catabolic Breaking down of large molecules in to smaller ones
End-product inhibition When enough of the final enzyme is produced, production of the original enzyme is stopped.
Phosphorylation The addition of phosphorous
Oxidative phosphorylation ADP is phosphorylated using energy released by oxidation
Photo phosphorylation The production of ATP using sunlight
Substrate level phosphorylation When ATP is created using the slitting of high energy, metabolic substances, using specialized enzymes
Photosystems A collection of membranes and chlorophyll molecules
Chemiosmosis The production of ATP using light energy
Meristem An area that is constantly dividing. They are undifferentiated cells that become different plant tissue.
Tropism A plant growth response to external stimuli
Auxin A plant hormone that stimulates shoot growth
Transpiration The loss of water vapour from the leaves of plants
Abscisic acid A hormone which causes the movement of potassium ions. It forces them to move out of the guard cells, making the stomata close, in order to preserve water.
Gibberelin A plant hormone which stimulates the production of amylase
Phytochrome A pigment found in leaves that the plant uses to measure the lengths of dark periods
Crossing over The swapping of genetic material between chromatids of homologous pairs
Random orientation The way in which homologous chromosomes line up on the equator is independent of the way another pair lines up
Sarcolemma The membrane of muscle fibres
Sarcoplasm The cytoplasm of muscle cells
Sarcoplasmic reticulum This is the equivalent of endoplasmic reticulum in normal cells.
Ultrafiltration The process by which various substances are filtered through through the capillaries in the glomerulus at high pressure.
Osmoregulation The body's response mechanism to maintain homeostatic regulation of water levels in the blood
Passive immunity When antibodies are given or transferred from one individual to another (breast feeding/placenta)
Spermatogenesis The creation of sperm
Oogenesis The creation of an ovum (egg)
Blastocyst The hollow ball shape of an embryo caused by unequal cell divisions
Oxytosin A hormone which stimulates the contraction of the uterus muscles
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