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Question Answer
Where do metals come from? Metals are found in the Earth's crust, most metals are found in their ores
Why don't we find gold in an ore? Because it is unreactive and won't react with chemicals around it
Which metal oxides can we use carbon to extract the metal from? Metal oxides where the metal is below carbon in the reactivity series
Which metals cannot be extracted using carbon? Metals above carbon in the reactivity series
How do we extract iron from iron ore? By reducing it using carbon in a blast furnace
Why is pure iron not very useful? It is too soft
What are alloys? A mixture of different metals usually put together to make the metal stronger
What are the important examples of steels? -Low carbon steels, which are easily shaped -High carbon steels which are very hard -Stainless steels which are resistant to corrosion
Why are aluminium and titanium so useful? They are stainless steels and therefore can resist corrosion
What method is used to extract metals that are more reactive than carbon? Electrolysis
Why are aluminium and titanium so expensive to extract? Because electrolysis has many stages and requires large amounts of energy
How is copper obtained from copper-rich ores? Smelting (roasting), where you heat the copper in a furnace with air to produce crude copper
What methods can be used to obtain copper from low-grade ores? Bioleaching, where bacteria feed on the ores or Phytomining, where plants like broccoli absorb the copper and can then be burnt to leave you with just the copper.
How is copper purified? By electrolysis
What are transition metals? Metals found in the middle block of the periodic table
Why are transition metals so useful? They are good conductors of electricity and energy, they are strong but can be bent or hammered into useful shapes
Why is copper such a useful metal? It can be bent but is still strong, it does not react with water so it can be used in plumbing
Why are alloys more useful than pure metals? They are much stronger