A Balanced Diet Flash Cards

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Diet Revision Resources for AS Level Biology OCR
gordonbrad
Flashcards by gordonbrad, updated more than 1 year ago
gordonbrad
Created by gordonbrad about 10 years ago
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Question Answer
A Balanced Diet Provides all the necessary nutrients in the right amounts.
Carbohydrates = Provide Energy
Fats (lipids) = act as an energy store, provide insulation, make up cell membranes and protect organs.
Proteins = Needed for growth, the repair of tissues and to make up enzymes.
Vitamins = different vitamins perform different function e.g. vitamin K is used for blood clotting
Mineral Salts = different mineral salts perform different functions e.g. iron is used to make haemoglobin in the blood
Fibre = aids movement of food through gut
Water = used in metabolic reactions e.g. breathing and in urination/sweating
Malnutrition is caused by having too little or too much of some nutrients in a diet. Getting too little = deficiency illnesses e.g. too little iron causes anaemia. Over-nutrition and lack of exercise can lead to obesity, which is 20% or more over the recommended body weight. Too much sugary/fatty foods are the main cause.
Obesity can increase the risk of diabetes, arthritis, high blood pressure, CHD and some forms of cancer.
Coronary Heart Disease is the result of reduced blood flow to the heart. It can lead to chest pain and heart attacks and is caused by atherosclerosis. A diet high in saturated fats raises blood cholesterol level which increases fatty deposits in the arteries and causes atherosclerosis. A diet high in salt can cause high blood pressure, damaging artery walls, causing atherosclerosis.
HDLs are high density lipoproteins which are mainly protein. They transport cholesterol from tissues to the liver where it's recycled or excreted. They reduce cholesterol. LDLs are low density lipoproteins which are mainly lipid. They transport cholesterol from the liver to the blood where it circulates until it's needed. They increase cholesterol.
LDLs are low density lipoproteins which are mainly lipid. They transport cholesterol from the liver to the blood where it circulates until it's needed. They increase cholesterol. A diet high saturated fats raises LDL level so more cholesterol is transported, increasing cholesterol level and risk of CHD.
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