chem salters a2 reactions to learn

joannalivesey
Flashcards by joannalivesey, updated more than 1 year ago
joannalivesey
Created by joannalivesey over 7 years ago
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Flashcards on chem salters a2 reactions to learn, created by joannalivesey on 04/29/2014.

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Question Answer
alkane -> halogenoalkane halogen e.g. Cl2, UV light + RT
alkene -> halogenoalkane conc HBr (aq), RT+P
alkene -> bromoalcohol shake with bromine water, RT+P
alkene -> dihalogenoalkane Br2 (in organic solvent), RT+P
alkene -> alkane H2 (g), Pt catalyst, RT+P OR Ni catalyst, 150˚C, 5atm
alkene -> alcohol steam, phosphoric acid catalyst, 300˚C, 60atm
alkene-> addition polymer trace O2, 200˚C, 1500atm (addition polymerisation)
homolytic fission of halogenoalkanes UV light makes radicals
heterolytic fission of halogenoalkanes dissolve in polar solvent (e.g.water/ethanol mix) makes carbocation and halide ion
halogenoalkane -> alcohol NaOH (aq), reflux OR water, reflux
halogenoalkane -> amine conc NH3 heat in a sealed tube
halogenoalkane -> nitrile (R-CN) + halide ion reflux with NaCN in ethanol/water (given on exam data sheet)
primary alcohol -> bromoalkane conc H2SO4 and NaBr (s) to make HBr in situ, heat under reflux (given on exam data sheet)
primary alcohol -> chloroalkane conc HCl
primary alcohol -> alkene pass vapour over Al2O3 at 300˚C
primary alcohol -> aldehyde. (oxidation) acidified potassium dichromate, heat and distil off as formed (goes from orange to green as dichromate ions reduced)
primary alcohol -> carboxylic acid. (oxidation) Acidified potassium dichromate, Heat under reflux (goes from orange to green as dichromate ions reduced)
secondary alcohol -> ketone. (oxidation) Acidified potassium dichromate Heat under reflux (goes from orange to green as dichromate ions reduced)
aldehyde -> primary alcohol. (reduction) NaBH4 (given on exam data sheet)
ketone -> secondary alcohol. (reduction) NaBH4 (given on exam data sheet)
aldehyde -> cyanohydrin HCN alkaline conditions
ketone -> cyanohydrin HCN alkaline conditions
aldehyde -> carboxylic acid acidified potassium dichromate, reflux (orange to green) OR heat with Fehlings solution (orange/brown precipitate formed)
carboxylic acid -> ester alcohol, conc H2SO4, heat under reflux
phenol -> ester acyl chloride RT+P (makes HCl) OR acid anhydride and heat under reflux (makes carboxylic acid) both anhydrous conditions
ester hydrolysis mod conc acid (e.g. H2SO4) OR mod conc alkali (e.g. NaOH) heat under reflux
alkylation of a primary amine halogenoalkene + primary amine -> secondary amine + HCl/HBr
making primary amides (acylation) acyl chloride + conc NH3-> primary amide + HCl
making secondary amides (acylation) acyl chloride + primary amine -> secondary amide + HCl
amide hydrolysis mod conc acid (e.g. HCl) OR mod conc alkali (e.g. NaOH) heat under reflux
Benzene -> cyclohexane H2, finely divided Ni catalyst, 300˚C, 30atm
nitrobenzene -> phenylamine catalyst: Sn + conc HCl, heat under reflux (on exam data sheet)
phenyl amine -> benzenediazonium ion (diazotisation) dilute HCl, NaNO2 (to form nitrous acid HNO2), less than 5˚C
diazonium ion -> azo compound
benzene nitration nitrating mix- conc nitric acid, conc sulphuric acid, less 55˚C
benzene sulfonation conc sulfuric, heat under reflux for several hours
benzene chlorination Cl2 (g), anhydrous AlCl3, RT+P
benzene Bromination Br2 (g), anhydrous FeBr3, RT+P
benzene alkylation chloroalkane, anhydrous AlCl3, heat under reflux
benzene acylation acyl chloride, anhydrous AlCl3, heat under reflux
advantages of friedel-craft reactions can be carried out in ionic liquids- reduces solvent emission, reduces flammability, recycle easily and allow reactions to be carried out at reduced temps
tests: alcohol + NaOH no reaction
tests: phenol + NaOH reacts to form a salt
tests: carboxylic acid + NaOH reacts to form a salt
tests: alcohol + carbonate no reaction
tests: phenol + carbonate no reaction
tests: carboxylic acid + carbonate fizzes- releases CO2
test for phenol neutral iron (III) chloride turns from yellow to purple
[Fe(H2O)6]2+ green solution
[Fe(H2O)6]3+ yellow solution
Fe(OH)2(s) green gelatinous solid
Fe(OH)3(s) orange gelatinous solid
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ blue solution
[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ violet solution
[CuCl4]2- yellow solution
Cu(OH)2(s) pale blue solid
N2O dinitrogen(I) oxide (nitrous oxide) colourless gas
NO2 nitrogen (IV) oxide (nitrogen dioxide)-brown toxic gas
NO nitrogen (II) oxide (nitrogen monoxide)- colourless gas, free radical
shape of N2 linear
shape of ammonia pyramid
shape of ammonium ion tetrahedral
shape of nitrate (III) ion bent
shape of nitrate (V) ion planar triangular
test for aldehyde fehlings solution, brown/orange precipitate formed
carboxylic acid -> aldehyde reflux with dilute HCl
carboxylic acid -> acyl chloride SCl2O, heat under reflux
nitrile -> carboxylic acid heat under reflux with dilute H2SO4
coupling reaction alkali, less than 5˚C
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