Family and Relationships


AS level Sociology (Miss O'Connor) Flashcards on Family and Relationships, created by becky sharrock on 03/21/2017.
becky sharrock
Flashcards by becky sharrock, updated more than 1 year ago
becky sharrock
Created by becky sharrock over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
what did Murdock study in 1949? studied 250 families across the world in different countries and cultures. He found that every family had a nucleus of a husband, wife and 1 or more children. It was 'universal'
what did Leach 1967 say? the nuclear family was the 'cereal packet family'. seen as the most acceptable and prominent family in the media
who promotes the nuclear family? functionalists New Right Thinkers
Young and Wilmott 1973? the symmetrical family: the family is nuclear, home centred and the husband and wife perform similar/equal roles. it is caused by changes in women's rights
Smart 1999 argues that the monogamous married couple is still seen as the core element for achieving a stable society
arguments that the nuclear family is still important in society stability for children; not accepting gay marriage; male and female role models; Murdock said it was universal; formal agents of social control encourage marriage e.g. tax breaks
arguments that the nuclear family is not important in society acceptance of gay people/relationships; other alternatives provide good families e.g. reconstituted; women can earn just as much so can be single parents; divorce is easier
what did Murray say? children from single parent families are more likely to lack emotional and social support and turn to crime
What did Murdock say about the extended family? saw 'extensions' to the nuclear family when families include 'kin'-relationships based on blood/marriage. could include polygamous relationships or different generations vertically or horizontally extended
anderson 1971 found that as Britain became industrialised more people lived as extended families. in Preston (working class) 23% of households had kin beyond immediate family (1800s)
Finch and Mason 1993 Manchester 90% of people received/gave financial help from/to relatives. Families also received emotional help e.g. babysitting
evidence of secularisation civil ceremonies outweigh religious ceremonies since 1976
reasons for the decrease in marriage secularisation decline in family values expenses cohabitation
price of wedding statistic the average wedding cost £20,900 in 2014
Roseneil and Budegeon 2004 refer to shared households as 'family of choice' studied 51 people who didn't live with a partner, new emphasis on friendship
arguments that marriage is still important -In 2012, 1/3 of marriages were remarriages, people still want to marry -groups campaign for right to marry e.g. homosexual marriage legal in UK 13th March 2014 -Families headed by married couples still most common type. 2013, 18.2 million families headed by married couples
Divorce is increasing: Legal Aid and Advice Act? Divorce Reform Act? 1949 Legal Aid and Advice Act: money towards legal money for divorce 1969 Divorce Reform Act: possible to divorce if both parties wish
Divorce is increasing: Matrimonial Proceedings Act? Family Law Act? Practice Direction? 1984 Matrimonial Proceedings Act: divorce is easier, can divorce after 1 year Family Law Act 1996: increased time until you can divorce from 1 year to 18 months 2011 Practice Direction: couples have mediation before divorce
Reasons for an increase in divorce -Functionalists: privatised nuclear family means less pressure from relatives -higher expectations of marriage through media -changing social attitudes (secularisation) -changing role of women -individualism and disagreement over purpose of marriage
Rodgers and Pryor 1998: 200 studies on how divorce effects kids. kids of divorced parents more likely to: -divorce when they get older -perform badly in school -wet the bed -teenage pregnancy -live in poverty -take drugs
why couples cohabit: decline in the 'living in sin' stigma decline in influence of religion expensive to marry people delay marriage norm shown through media/TV Allan and Crow: better method of contraception
Reasons for having kids later women have careers cost of living increased (save for longer) wait to buy property (In 2013 the average age of mothers hit 30 years old, ONS)
'Social change, family formation and kin relationships' 2002, 30% of women had higher income than their partner in 1960s 20% of households were extended, in 2002 only 0.5% were
birth rate trends -decline in birth rates in UK from over a million in 1901 to 790,000 in 2008 -fertility rate fallen from 3.5 in 1900 to 1.7 children in 1997
reasons for long term decline in birth rates women not wanting to give up careers birth control increased singlehood increased cost of living
'After I've done the mum thing' women were the main carers in families. women has roles such as feeding, shopping, cleaning, emotional support and discipline. women also were carers for other family members (i.e. elderly, sick or disabled)
factors affecting birth rate, causing reduced birthrate -economic (cost of raising child from birth to 21 in 2013 was £227,266). children change from economic asset to economic burden -women's opportunities -changing social attitudes -individualisation -birth control/abortion -decline in mortality
reasons for increase age for childbirth -more freedom of choice for women -Bhrocchain and Beaujouan 2012 said rising levels of education for women and careers leads to delaying children -class differences (middle class later than working class) -IVF -Ageing population
what is the crude birth rate number of births per 1000 women (allowing comparison across countries and time)
total fertility rate (TFR) number of children a women will have in her life time.(rough indicator of average family size)
average women had ? number of children in: 1871 1921 2012 1871: 5.5 children 1921: 2.4 children 2012: 1.72 children
Beck and Beck Gernsheim 1995: individuals want to construct their own life, not constrained by traditions
Decline in mortality death rates decreased and life expectancy increased. infant mortality decreased so families no longer needed to have lots of children. 1901, 25% of babies dies before age 1, in 2005 less than 1%
types of family -nuclear (ONS 2013 most common) -Reconstituted (2011 11% of couples with dependent children were reconstituted) -extended (vertically and horizontally, ONS 2013: fastest growing type) -lone parent (91% of lone families the parent is the mother) -same sex (2005 civil partnerships)
advantages of an ageing population -older workers (2010 WRVS, over 65s net contribution of £40 billion to UK) -voluntary sector (100+ hours a year) -older people as consumers (more than young people on travel, theatre, eating etc) -grandparents (Jones 2011, 'reserve army of labour' -'beanpole families' Brannen 2003
disadvantages of an ageing population -increasing age dependency ratio -increased public spending (health etc) -Loneliness/isolation (but GO programme found only 7% said they were lonely) -Demands on family members (Grundy and Henrietta 2006, 'sandwich' generation, middle age caring for young and old relatives
causes of an ageing population -people living longer, better healthcare, diet, more leisure time, better quality of living -having fewer children means the percentage of old people is larger
Abortion Act 1967 Abortion Act legalising abortion. gives women more control, also a reason for decrease in family size
baby booms after wars, decrease of births during wars. 25 year cycle as baby boom generation has children. drop in late 1990s as generation earlier reached all time low
births outside of marriage increasing 1971 8% born outside marriage, 2012 47.5%. secularisation, cost of marriage, social attitudes, women more stable financially (don't need security of a male), potentially more lone parent families
The Rapoport 1982, classify family diversity in 5 ways: 1. organisational diversity (family structure and roles) 2. cultural diversity (ethnicity/religion) 3.classed based diversity 4. stage in life cycle (couple, family, retired) 5. cohort diversity (period of time at which families pass through stages)
criticisms of the Rapoports -Allen and Crow (2001) reject idea that there is a clear family cycle that every family passes through -Beck and Beck's view of individualisation more prevalent when choosing partners in contemporary society
Conjugal Roles the roles between men and women in the household Oakley's 1974 research showed class to be an important factor in the division of labour in the home
Weeks et al 1999 the 'chosen' family. homosexual families have: -a higher degree of choice -commitment is negotiated -roles are not preset -choice is valued
cultural diversity: African-Caribbeans -over 45% were lone parent in 2001. -more individualised than white British and South Asians.
Dale et al 2004 black women stayed in full time work after children, white and Indian women more likely to work part time
South Asian families traditional gender roles strong sense of obligation family honour arranged marriages
Singh 2003 changes in values of Sikh community, value of individualism, more pragmatic. E.G. hijab worn by women as part of identity but reject traditional 'housewife' role
social class and family: poverty -Katz 2007 the stress of living in poverty makes it more difficult for parents to bring up their children effectively -children living in poverty more likely to be disadvantaged
social class and family -middle class more geographically mobile -Oakley 1974 middle class domestic roles more shaded, dual career and more likely to afford domestic labour -Bourdieu 1973 'cultural capital' forms of cultural knowledge help children in education and high society
sexuality and family -Weeks et al 'the chosen family' -Calhoun 1997: gay people have traditionally been treated as family outlaws who threaten family life -British Social Attitudes Survey 2012, 28% sexual relationships between same sex were always/mostly wrong -Civil Partnership Act 2004
laws permitting sexual diversity in families -gay couples could legally adopt 2002 -Civil Partnership Act 2004, same legal rights as a married couple
New Right and family diversity (Dennis 1993) -nuclear family ideal so critical of family diversity -single parents not able to socialise children effectively -Dennis: men marginalised in families, boys don't have male role models if families split up
organic analogy (functionalism) if all systems (organs) in society are functioning in harmony it will remain healthy. But if one of these vital institutions starts to malfunction, then society becomes dysfunctional
Murdock 1949: 4 functions of the nuclear family -sexual (marriage) -economic (provides food, goods, services) -reproduction -education (primary socialisation)
Engles 1884 (marxist) -family developed to suit needs of capitalism, needed to know the paternity of children to pass on property -wanted to control women's sexuality to be sure the children's parents
Engles' view on the family 1884 -humans are naturally promiscuous, marriage started with private property (inheritance). inheritance to man so woman had to be subjugated (kept down). marriage a tool to control women's sexuality, women stay loyal to men. women may run the house but they have no property rights, they rely on men
Critique of Engles -His views are outdated and based on a specific social context (industrial revolution in Europe) -There is no evidence that we would be naturally promiscuous. Murdock argued that the nuclear family was the norm in 200 societies, not all of which were based on industrial capitalist values.
Zaretsky 1976 (updated Marxist theory) -the family serves the needs of modern capitalism. capitalism exploits you so you need the family to help -housewives are needed by performing free tasks for capitalism (raise children...) -buy consumer goods
Zaretsky's view on the Family -serves capitalism -housewives look after workers and raise next generation at no cost -family consumes goods produced by the capitalist system (fridges, beds, lego) -children learn to submit to authority in the family unit (good proletarians) -workers exploited by capitalism are comforted by the family, don't rebel -children creates next generation of workers -family teaches hierarchy
challenge to Zaretsky: Poulantzas (1969) Poulantzas 1969 said that the family serves the interest of the ruling class. it socialises us into the norms and values of capitalist, bourgeois society
Critique of Zaretsky -over emphasises the role of capitalism – feminists would argue that patriarchy is more important than capitalism as the basis of exploitation. -The modern family is more diverse – Giddens: the family structure is much more equal ‘democratisation of the family. Children are less willing to submit. -Housewives no longer stay at home to care for workers and children.
Althusser 1970 Distinguished between repressive state apparatuses (RSA) e.g. police, courts and armed forced; and Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) e.g. family, schools, church, mass media
Ideological State Apparatuses operates via the socialisation process to maintain capitalism and the dominance of the capitalist class. transmits norms and values of capitalism outside of state control; transmits false class consciousness. -capitalism infiltrated through: family (next generation of workers), media (consumer goods) and religion (not questioning authority)
Zaretsky and Althusser -both see consumer goods as having role in enforcing capitalism -Zaretsky: family enforces capitalism; Althusser: secondary socialisation enforces capitalism -both that family reinforces hierarchies
Radical feminism and the family -traditional families are a form of patriarchal control. women's opportunities are restricted by their roles -men are main beneficiaries of women's unpaid domestic work
Delphy and Leonard 1992 (radical feminist) -men as head of households making key decisions. control family finance/house/property. -women expected to perform unpaid domestic and reproductive work -women contribute more to the family but receive less back as men control finances, have more leisure time and have the car
Somerville 2000 (liberal feminist) -the picture of the family painted by feminists of women being exploited by men is outdated -looks at progress in family; focus on obtaining equal rights/regulate laws; at least women have more freedom to escape unsatisfactory relationships
Benston 1972 (Marxist feminist) unpaid domestic work of women helps to support capitalism. renew men's ability to go to work and care for children producing next generation of workers
Feminist theory of the family: radical feminists. family plays a key part in maintaining the oppression of women
Feminist theory of the family: radical feminists. Greer (2000) -even in 21st century, women are still below husbands in status -single women are happier than married women, shown by high number of divorces instigated by women -wives more likely to suffer abuse from husbands, daughters often victims of sexual abuse by male relatives
Feminist theory of the family: Marxist feminists. family benefits capitalism and patriarchy
Feminist theory of the family: Marxist feminists. Benston 1972 wives used to produce cheap labour. their childcare is unpaid and they look after their husband at no cost to the employer
Feminist theory of the family: Marxist feminists. Ansley 1972 women bear the brunt of stress men suffer at work
roles of grandparents -Childcare is expensive. HSBC report (2007) Grandparents are estimated to have saved parents in the UK £50 billion -Grandparentsplus (2009) :grandparents are far more flexible than nurseries, which require advance notice,and have fixed hours which might not fit with parents working hours. -Statham (2011) Grandparents support: occasional babysitting, regular child care, financial support, fostering etc.
Feminist theory of the family: Liberal feminists. -value relationships with men and are willing wives and mothers -Wilmott and Young say that there is a rise in joint conjugal roles, with the rise of the symmetrical family
Feminist theory of the family: Liberal feminists. Somerville (2000) -family is becoming more equal -women have more choice in marriage, work and divorce
Feminist theory of the family: Difference feminists. -argue that women's experience depends on factors like ethnicity and sexuality -Nicholson (1997) women are better off outside traditional families: family diversity helps women -Calhoun (1997) lesbian households offer a way out of exploitation by men
postmodernist views on the family Giddens 1992 -confluent love: love has changed from romantic to confluent, love is temporary -someone is no longer 'The One' but 'the one for now'. couples stay while it's beneficial and part when this ends -BUT young people still socialised into romantic love by the media
postmodernist views on the family Giddens: positives and negatives -positives: explained reduction in marriage and increase in divorce, cohabitation, singlehood and reconstituted families; increase in remarriage, less commitment -negatives: people still marry (but later), same sex marriage campaigns, south Ssians get married earlier so can't generalise all cultures, people value security
postmodernist views on the family Beck and Beck-Gernshein (1995) -individualisation. roles are less clear cut (shown by Connell's hegemonic masculinity, no one way to be a man) -more educational/employment opportunities allows more choice -increased social and geographical mobility -higher expectations of love
postmodernist views on the family Beck and Beck-Gernshein (1995) positives and negatives -positives: explains stats and social phenomenon-divorce rates, singlehood, married later, to pursue education/career/travel -negatives: not everyone has choice (feminists say women still left holding the baby while men leave), lose connections with family members due to lifestyle
postmodernist views on the family Stacey 1996 -no dominant family type, the family no longer conforms to traditional roles. choice -Pakulski and Waters 1996, family roles are a matter of choice shaped by media -concepts of family are fluid and ever changing, each person/family chooses own roles and traditions
postmodernist views on the family Stacey 1996 positives and negatives -positives: supported by evidence of increased family diversity -negatives: nuclear family still most common, functionalist say there are still distinct gender roles (Schafly), too optimistic about choice
joint conjugal roles vs segregated conjugal roles -joint: both men and women share tasks e.g. both paid work and chores -segregated: roles of a husband and wife are very different e.g. husband as breadwinner, wife doing chores
conjugal roles in contemporary UK BSAS and BTUS -British Social Attitudes Survey: laundry performed by 81% of women in 1994 and 77% in 2006, only slight change -The British Time Use Survey: women spent 3hours 32mins a day on housework and childcare, men only spent 1hour 56 mins (2005)
conjugal roles in contemporary UK -The National Child Development Survey 1996: still unusual for fathers to take prime responsibility for looking after children -Gershuny 1999: long term trends show a gradual shift towards men doing housework but in 1997 60% of domestic work done by women
Power and Decision Making -Hardill (1997) studied 30 Nottingham households. 19 of them the mans career came first (6 equal) -Pahl (1989) 60% of men incharge of money
Duncombe and Marsden 1995 'The Triple Shift'- paid work, house work and emotional work -studied 40 couples, many women believed their partner did not help enough with emotional work
the symmetrical family -Wilmott and Young (1973) joint conjugal roles are becoming more common in symmetrical families -however Oakley (1974) criticised saying that Wilmott and Young counted a family as symmetrical if the husband did any housework once a week
lesbian households -Dunne (1999) childcare equally shared and housework shared 80% of the time. it is masculine and feminine roles that create unequal conjugal roles -Gabb (2005) more negotiation
cultural and social variations in the family -CLASS: middleclass women do less work than working class (Man Yee Kan 2008) -ETHNICITY: South Asian families adopt traditional gender roles (Berthoud 2001) -SEXUALITY: same sex couples discuss and negotiate who does what (Weeks 1999) AGE: younger couples tend to have more equal relationships (until children)
changing role of grandparents -Willmot & Young argued that since the 1970s, the family is symmetrical. This means that nuclear family is privatised. Extended family is now less important. -Deborah Chambers: families live in separate geographical areas, so many grandparents don’t live close enough to provide support. -Many grandparents now still work or are in employment. They may not be willing or able to get involved (linked to Beck & Beck Gernsheim – Individualism)
domestic violence definition any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are or who have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality
Guardian stat on domestic violence 2010 40% of domestic abuse victims were male
stats on domestic violence -7.3% of all women reported some sort of domestic violence 2011-12 and 5% of all men -in total 1.2 million female victims of domestic abuse and 800,000 males 2011-12
Nazroo's (1999) critique of such statistics incidents of male on female domestic abuse were much more serious than female on male, so the statistics do not reveal the extent of the abusive picture against women
Explanation of domestic abuse: Psychological theories Mullender (1996): abusive males suffer from psychological disorders. e.g. brain abnormalities, insecure childhoods or anger due to childhood family conflict. they express psychological problems through domestic abuse
Explanation of domestic abuse: Dysfunctional partnerships 1 1. a) Sclater (2001) partners marry but realise they are incompatible leading to conflict/arguments and outbursts of violence b) Johnson (1995) occasional outbursts rather than deliberate violence can lead to patriarchal terrorism where men set out to dominate and ruin the life of the women they no longer like
Explanation of domestic abuse: Dysfunctional partnerships 2 2. Giddens (2006) 'emotional intensity'. in a nuclear family with no extended kinship to relieve pressure, little disputes can turn into rows and violence
Explanation of domestic abuse: Male Dominance a) feminists say domestic violence is used by men to control women; it is control based on force and threat of force. violence is an expression of patriarchy b) Nazroo (1999) found lots of examples of male violence, men causing harm and serious injury, and women living in constant threat of fear/intimidation
parents and childcare: Child Centredness 1) JENKS (2005) children take priority over adults in family. Postmodern world has an erosion of stability and frequent divorces, children are only source of stability 2) CUNNINGHAM (1976) 3 principles that form parenting today 1) children separate from adult world 2) children need protection from adult life 3) happiness of children is paramount
parents and childcare: Child Centredness critique POSTMAN (1994) says that children are not as protected as they should be and that childhood is dissappearing. children are exposed to sex, violence and suffering, through media, at a young age. the gap between adult and child is blurring
parents and childcare: Changing gender roles and fathers part 1 -DERMOTT (2003) of 25 fathers in managerial roles, there was a new style of 'intimate fathering', where they sought a closer, more emotional and open relationship with their children -SMART (1999) looked at 60 couples, only 1 where parenting was fully shared between parents. even after divorce, mother takes lead in childcare
parents and childcare: Changing gender roles and fathers part 2 -BACKETT (1987) mothers still took lead in decisions of childcare, fathers found it more difficult to interpret needs of children -CHAPMAN (2004) a working woman in the 1960s was accused of 'neglecting' their children but now seen better for mothers to work and children to go to nursery
parents and childcare: good and bad parenting -GERSHUNY (2000) surveyed 3000 parents: the time spent by parents playing/reading with children has gone up by 400% in recent decades -PALMER (2007) counters this saying most parents use TV and video games to entertain children
Willmott (1988) suggested the dispersed extended family is typical. most people live in nuclear families but may have relatives who live far apart who are still important, and contact is made by phone and email
Trend of household size decreasing evidence and reasons 1971-98, single person households rose from 18% to 29% (due to rising life expectancy more widows, geographical mobility i.e. moving for work, rising divorce rates, and individualisation)
trend of family size decreasing, evidence and reasons average woman in 1871 had 5.5 children and in 2012 had 1.72 children (change in gender roles e.g. contraception and employment, falling infant mortality, children as economic burdens. counter: immigrants tend to have larger families)
trend of marriage rates decreasing evidence and reasons 1995-2005 marriage rates fell from 35 males per 1000, to 25. (changing social attitudes i.e. cohabitation acceptable, secularisation, postmodernism i.e. individualisation)
trend of increased cohabitation evidence and reasons 1979, less than 3% of females were cohabiting, in 1995, 12% (rising divorce rates, secularisation, changing social attitudes, postmodernism)
trend of divorce increasing long term, evidence and reasons 28% of men and 20% of women have married and divorced more than once (value of marriage i.e. Fletcher: want to get it right, conflict between spouses, ease of divorce and postmodernism)
trends in parenting (more single parents and parents later on in life) evidence and reasons in 2007, 1 in 5 single women had a dependent child (rising divorce rates, postmodernism, changing social attitudes)
evidence for secularisation only 15% of the UK population go to Church even once a month
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