BTEC ICT theory FIRST HALF

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BTEC IT Flashcards on BTEC ICT theory FIRST HALF, created by Maria Cul on 03/22/2017.
Maria Cul
Flashcards by Maria Cul, updated more than 1 year ago
Maria Cul
Created by Maria Cul over 7 years ago
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Question Answer
Multifunctional Devices Devices that can perform multiple functions, such as inputting and outputting data. E.g. Touch screen
Personal Computers Small and inexpensive computers for the use by individual users E.g. Desktops and Laptops
Mobile Devices Smartphones and tablets are made with portability in mind to give people computer and internet access while on the go
Servers These powerful computers provide services to other computers connected to a network. E.g. Mail server
Entertainment Systems Devices for watching TV/films, listening to music and playing video games
Digital Cameras These capture images and videos digitally using an image sensor and store them as digital data on media such as a memory card or hard drive
Navigation Systems Use a GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) receiver to locate the users position on a digital map and provide directions to a given destination.
Communication Devices and Systems Can send and receive analogue or digital data to and from another device. E.g. Traditional analogue = Phones and faxes Modern digital = router
Data Capture and collection systems Collect and input data through automated systems rather than direct data entry.
Three examples of Data Capture and collection systems >Barcode Scanner >Optical Mark Reader >EPOS (Electronic point of sale)
6 uses of digital devices 1) Education and Training 2) Personal 3) Social 4) Retail 5) Organisational use 6) Creative
Peripheral Devices Hardware devices that are not essential to the running of a computer system but that connect to the system and provide additional functions. (Most common types are input and output devices)
Input devices >Keyboard >Mouse >Scanner >Graphics tablet >Microphone >Webcam >Sensor
Features of a Microphone Converts analogue signals (sound waves) into electrical signals to be sent to the sound card which converts analogue to digital.
Output devices >Monitor >Projector >Printer >Plotter >Speakers >Headphones
Features of a plotter This specialist type of printer draws to a very high quality on very large paper
Accessibility Devices (Disabilities) >Trackball >Touch screen / large key keyboard >Eye motion sensors >Braille embosser
Manual Processes >Keying client or product details into a database >Entering customers' meal choices into a restaurant's system. >Marking exam scripts >Entering survey responses from a form
Automatic processes/Devices >Biometric readers (fingerprints etc) >Barcode readers >Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) Readers >Radio-frequency identification (RFID) >Smart Meters
Hard disk drives Magnetic storage devices, commonly used as the primary internal storage device but can be external
Advantages of HDD > Low storage capacity (1 terabyte or more) > Low cost on a per byte basis > Very reliable
Disadvantages of HDD > Slower than SSDs at loading data > External HDDs are not as portable as some other options
Solid State Drives Flash memory devices commonly used as the primary storage in portable computing devices like tablets and laptops.
Advantages of SSDs > Very fast data read/write speeds > Low power consumption > Extremely reliable as they have no moving parts which can be damaged.
Disadvantage of SSDs > Higher cost than HDDs on a per byte basis > Usually have a lower storage capacity > Only have a finite number of writes
SD cards Small flash memory cards that are commonly used for storage in digital cameras and some smartphones
Advantages of SD cards > Very small and portable > Easy to transfer between devices with SD card readers
Disadvantages of SD cards > Very small storage capacity, generally around 64gb - greater capacity is costly > Various 'enhancements' to the standards, resulting in potential compatibility problems (SDHC and SDXC)
USB memory sticks Small flash memory devices that connect through a USB port
Advantages of USB > Extremely portable device > Compatible with most computer systems through USB ports
Disadvantage of USB > Storage capacity is low when compared to HDD and SSD > Only have a finite number of writes before they break > Get lost easily
Optical disks Such as CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray disks are used for software, music and movies
Advantages of Optical Disks > Small and portable > A lot of devices have built in capability to read them
Disadvantages of Optical Disks > Archival stability or writable media can be questionable > Fragile and easy to damage
Magnetic tape Used for large data backups
Advantages of Magnetic tape > Very large storage capacity > Cheap on a per byte basis
Disadvantages of Magnetic Tape > Data is accessed serially which is very slow > Requires specialist equipment for recording and reading data.
Operating system (on a digital device) is the link between the hardware and the software. It passes messages back and forth and carries out instructions.
Types of operating systems 1) Real-time (RTOS) 2) Single-user single task 3) Single-user multi-tasking 4) Multi-user
Real-time Operating systems (RTOS) Inputs are processed and responded to instantaneously. > Provides fast response > Used for traffic lights
Single-user single task OS One user can use the system at a time, and one application can be run at a time. > Requires fewer resources
Single-user multi-tasking OS One user can use the system at a time, but many applications can be run simultaneously. > Open several applications at a time
Multi-user OS Many users can use the system at the same time and can run many applications simultaneously. > Processing and resources can be shared by multiple users
Factors effecting performance > Hardware factors > Malware > Virtual memory factors
Role of operating systems 1) Networking 2) Security 3) Memory management 4) Multi-tasking 5) Device drivers
User Interfaces The core part of any operating system. It allows the user to interact with the computer system. 1) CLI 2) GUI 3) Menu Based
Command Line Interface (CLI) User interacts by typing in commands in response to prompts displayed on the screen ADV: quick, less memory DISAD: Knowledge, intimidating
Graphical User Interface (GUI) Controlling a pointer or touch screen to select icons and menus displayed on screen.
Menu Based interface Users interact using a simple menu that presents options to choose from e.g. ATM screen
Utility software Used to manage system resources. 1) Disk 2) Network 3) Other (that don't fall under a particular category)
Disk utilities Design to maintain performance of a computer's disk drive > File compressors > Backup > Disk deftagmenter
Network utilities Design to maintain good network traffic and keep networks secure. > Firewalls > Anti-virus
Image File types > GIF > JPEG > PNG > BMP
Application software file types > DOC and RTF > PDF > XLS > ODF > PPT >MDB and ACCDB
Video file types > MOV > AVI > MP4 > MKV
Factors to think about when choosing a file type 1) Compatibility 2) Quality 3) File Size
Uses of application software >Productivity software - apps like word, publishers etc >Graphics software >Communications software - instant messaging, email, VOIP
Name the different types of people who owns the source code behind the software. > Proprietary Software - source code is privately owned by the software company > Open source software - source code is available to read and modify
What to consider when choosing an applications software > Ease of use > Reliability > Capability - can do the job required of it
Emerging technologies What are currently in development and are just starting to make an impact on business and general society >Artificial intelligence >Biometrics >Robotics >Virtual reality
Choosing an IT system 1) User experience and needs 2) Specifications, compatibility and connectivity 3) Cost 4) Efficiency and productivity 5) Implementation 6) Security
Wired system connection methods
Wired Device connections
Wireless system connection methods
Wireless connections methods for devices
LAN A computer that covers a single building or site. A router might connect a LAN to the internet/WAN
WAN A computer network that covers a large geographical area such as a country or the world. Normally made up of many LANs connected together. E.g. Internet
PAN Personal area network. Used to network devices wirelessly within a short range of an individual. E.g. Bluetooth
VPN Creates a secure network connection by encryption.
Factors effecting choice of network >User experience & needs >Specifications >Connectivity >Cost >Efficiency >Compatibility >Productivity >Security
Network Performance factors >Bandwidth and connection methods >Load >Professional level equipment or SOHO equipment? >Infrastructure
Protocols Rules that define methods of communicating data between two or more digital devices. They ensure that transmission of data always follows a set procedure.
Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol TCP/IP used together as basic communication over the internet. Data sent over the internet are sent over 'packets' individually, then re-assembled at the destination. TCP creates packets - IP routes the packets
Email (Protocols) >SMTP - Simple mail transfer protocol (transfers) >POP3 - Post office protocol 3 (retrieve & Download) >IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol (retrieve & sync)
Voice and video calls (Protocols) >H.323 >SIP - Session initiation Protocol >RTP - Real-time Transport Protocol
Web pages (Protocols) >HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol >HTTPS >FTP - File Transfer Protocol
Security Protocols >SSL - Secure Sockets Layer >TLS - Transport Layer Security Used to make sure that transactions over the network are kept safe
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