AQA Psychology GCSE Research Methods 1


All definitions and information required for the AQA GCSE Psychology spec for Research Methods 1 (Some ridiculously obvious things omitted) -Enjoy!
Diana Domingues
Flashcards by Diana Domingues, updated more than 1 year ago
Diana Domingues
Created by Diana Domingues over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Hypothesis A testable statement about the relationship between two variables. In an experiment these variables are called the Interdependent Variable and the Dependent Varible
Variable A factor or thing that can change -It varies
Independent Variable The variable that the researcher alters or manipulates to look for an effect on another variable. This variable produces the two conditions of the study
Dependent Variable The variable that the researcher measures to see if the IV has affected it
Experiment The method of research in which all variables other than the independent variable and dependent variable are controlled. This allows the researcher to identify a cause and effect relationship bet ween the IV and the DV
Condition An experiment is usually organised so there are two trials after which the performance of the participants are compared. These are the conditions of the experiment
Formulating a hypothesis Needs to be very specific
Participant A person who is selected to take part in a study
Order Effect This occurs when a participant's performance in the second in the condition of an experiment is affected because they have already done the first condition. They may do better because of practice or worse because of fatigue. This may happen in a repeated measures design
Participant Variables The difference between the people who take part in the study. These may affect the results of an experiment that uses an independent groups design
Independent Groups Advantages - There no order effects - The same material can be used in both conditions - No demand characteristics
Independent Groups Disadvantages - Participant variables - Need more people
Repeated Measures Adavantages - No participant variables - Use less people
Repeated Measures Disadvantages - Order effects - Need two tasks (more material) - Demand characteristics
Matched Pairs Advantages - Less participant variables - No order effects - Same material can be used
Matched Pairs Disadvantages - Matching is difficult, time-consuming & not always effective - Some participants variables are still present
Standard Procedures A set order of carrying out a study that is applied to all participants when necessary
Random Allocation A procedure for putting participants into conditions by chance
Counterbalancing A procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions of an experiment
How to counterbalance Split your participants into 2 groups Group 1 does condition A then condition B, Group 2 does condition B then condition A
Instructions The written (or verbal) information given to participants in an experiment
Extraneous Variables A variable that is not the IV but might effect the DV if it is not controlled
Stages of Instructions 1- Briefing 2- Standardised instructions 3- Debriefing
Briefing - Encourages a person to participate in the study - Contains ethical information (Consent, Anonymity, Withdrawal, etc)
Standardised Instructions - Clear instructions on what the participants have to do
Debriefing - Explains the study in detail - Ethical issues re-discussed - Allowed to withdraw data is they wish to
Randomisation Using chance to produce an order for a procedure
Ecological Validity The results of an investigation can be said to apply to real life behaviour. They are an accurate account of behaviour in the real world
Objectivity Not affected by personal bias
Experiments Advantages - Control of EVs makes it easier to identify cause an effect - They can be replicated because they are controlled and standardised - Are objective due to the procedures used to set them up (eg. randomisation)
Experiments Disadvantages - Setting can be very artificial, causing a lack of ecological validity - Participants know that they are in an experiment and can behave abnormally
Sample The small group of people who represent the target population who are studied
Target Population The large group of people the researcher wishes to study and can generalise their results to.
Representative The sample of participants is made up of people who have the same characteristics and abilities as the target population
Generalised The results from the study can be said to apply to the target population
Random Sample Every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
Opportunity Sample People who are members of the target population and are available and willing to take part make up the sample
Systematic Sample Every nth member of the target population is selected for the sample
Stratified Sample The different subgroups in the target population are identified; then people are randomly selected from these subgroups in proportion to their numbers in the target polpulation
Random Sample advantages - No researcher bias - Likely to be representative
Random Sample Disadvantages - Time consuming
Opportunity Sample Advantages - Quick & Easy
Opportunity Sample Disadvantages - Not likely to be representative - May have researcher bias
Systematic Sample Advantages - Simple procedure - No researcher bias
Systematic Sample Disadvantages - Sample may not be representative
Stratified Sample Adavantatges - Very representative
Stratified Sample Disadavantatges - Very time-consuming
Measures of central tendency - Mean - Median - Mode
Measures of dispersion Range
Anomalous Result An extremely high or low result that does not match the other results in a set of scores
Ethical Considerations - Confidentiality - Deceit - Consent - Debrief - Withdrawal - Protection
Ethical Issues Points of concern about what is morally right
BPS Guidelines British Psychological Society Guidelines Ethical considerations are based off this
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