Non Verbal Communication

Mursal Kharoti
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Mursal Kharoti
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Unit One Non verbal communication. Studies included.

Resource summary

Non Verbal Communication
  1. How Do We Communicate?
    1. KEY WORDS.
      1. Verbal Communication: Conveying information with vocal sounds and words
        1. ARGYLE, ALKEMA AND GILMOUR.
          1. AIM: tone of voice has any effect when interpreting a verbal message. METHOD:Hostile/friendly messages/voices. RESULTS: when interpreted, 5X effect than message itself. CONCLUSION: Tone of voice v important when interpreting message.
          2. DAVITZ AND DAVITZ
            1. AIM: Effect of Paralinguistics on assessment of emotion. METHOD: Listen to tape recordings, assess emotion from Paraliguistic cues: Tone Of Voice, Intonation, Emphasis. RESULTS: V high level of accuracy in recognising these emotions: affection, amusement, disgust, fear. CONCLUSION: Paralinguistics has great importance when judging emotion.
            2. EVALUATION OF THESE STUDIES: } May explain why some people may have trouble getting verbal informtion across as their tone of voice contradict what they are saying } Artificial setting. Participants focusing on different aspects of communication, when in real life we dont pay attention, but rather focus on the actual words.
            3. Paralinguistics: Vocal features that accompany speech.
              1. Tone Of Voice: The way words are spoken to convey emotion.
                1. Intonation: Inflection in the voice while speaking.
                  1. Emphasis: Giving importance to some words.
                  2. Non-Verbal Communication: Conveying messages without speech, or vocal sounds.
                2. How Do We Use Eye Contact?
                  1. KEY WORDS.
                    1. Eye Contact: When two people in conversation look into each others eyes at the same time.
                      1. ARGYLE
                        1. AIM: How interrupting eye contact affects conversation. METHOD: Pairs of participants having coversations. Condtions: with and without glasses. RESULTS: Dark glasses worn: more interruptions and pauses than when not worn. CONCLUSION:Eye Conact important to ensure smooth flow of conversation.
                          1. EVALUATION:Studies on Pupil Dilation help us understand why eye makeup is so popular. The effect of making the eyes look larger and darker may be unconscious signal for attraction.
                          2. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Studies of eye movement help us to understand why we may feel uncomfortable if some one who is talking to us never breaks eye contact with us. } We have no control over Pupil Dilation. A drawback of this is that we can't hide our emotions.
                          3. Pupil Dilation: When the pupils in the eyes expand, to look larger.
                            1. HESS
                              1. AIM: Effect of Pupil Dilation on emotion. METHOD:Shown two nearly identical pictures of a girl but one of them Pupil Dilated. Participants asked which picture looked more attractive. RESULTS:Majority said that the picture with Dilated pupils more attractive but couldn't say why that picture. CONCLUSION: Pupil Dilation has a powerful yet unconcious affect on emotion.
                                1. EVALUATION: Asking people to get acquainted then observing is a very artificial situation and wouldn't happen in real life. Participants may have acted differently than normal. }Studies of eye contact does help us know what we can do to make a conversation run more smoothly.
                          4. HOW DO WE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS?
                            1. HEMISPHERES OF THE BRAIN: T he brain is divided into two halves; called the left and right hemispheres.
                              1. SACKEIM
                                1. AIM: To Look at the relationship between the hemispheres of the brain and facial expressions. METHOD: Pictures of people showing different emotions were cut in half. New faces were created with the cut half and its mirror image. The each pair of new faces were shown to the participants and they were asked which one they liked better.. RESULTS:Majority said they liked the left half face stuck with the reflection. Why? Because it looked 'warmer'. CONCLUSION: Left side of the face seems to express more emotion than the right side.
                                  1. EVALUATION: } Studies that include pictures are usually low in ecological validity: we don't stare at still images and judge human emotion.}Other aspects of non-verbal communication give more accurate clues with facial expressions. Doesn't work well in isolation.
                                    1. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:We why prefer some profile pictures to others.
                              2. HOW DO WE USE BODY LANGUAGE?
                                1. KEYWORDS
                                  1. Body Language: General term to describe aspects of non-verbal communication..
                                    1. Posture: Positioning of our body, regarded as a non-verbal communication signal.
                                      1. OPEN POSTURE: Arms folded/Legs crossed
                                        1. CLOSED POSTURE: Arms open/legs not crossed.
                                          1. MCGINLEY, LEFEVRE, MCGINLEY
                                            1. AIM: To see effect of open/closed posture when having a conversation. METHOD:A confederate approached individuals and had conversations with them. Condition one: opne posture. Condition two:closed posture. Afterwards experimenter asked the individuals what they thought of the experimenter. RESULTS: Open posture: attractive + friendly. Closed: opposite.CONCLUSION: The posture one adopts makes a difference on how much they are liked.
                                              1. EVALUATION: Unethical as individuals didn't know that there was confederates being used. Individuals didn't know that they were part of an experiment. Deception. }Could be other factors influencing the outcome of the experiment like personality differences and preference. Confederate may have been appealing to some individuals and not to others.
                                            2. Postural Echo: Mirroring another persons body position.
                                              1. AIM: Effect of Postural Echo when having a conversation. METHOD: Confederate approached individuals and had a conversation with them condition one:postural echo. condition two:no postural echo.Afterwards experimenter asked the individuals what they thought about the confederate.RESULTS: Postural echo: liked confederate. got on well together. No postural echo: convo was awkward and confederate wasn't liked as much. CONCLUSION: Postural echo gives unconsious message of friendliness.
                                                1. McGINELY.
                                                2. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Counsellers may adopt postural echo to develop closer relationships with their clients. Clients may reveal more information about themselves if a counseller does so.
                                                3. Confederate: an actor who is appearing to be a genuine participant but is rather working for the experimenter.
                                                  1. GESTURE: a form of non-verbal communication in which information is conveyed by conscious or unconscious movement by a part of the body.
                                                    1. LYNN AND MYNIER
                                                      1. AIM: To see the effect of gesture used by waiters/tresses in the tipping behavior of customers in a restaurant. METHOD: While taking orders from seated customers waiters either 1.standing upright or 2.squatting down to allow more eye contact to be made. RESULTS: When squatted: larger tips made than standing upright. CONCLUSION: The gesture of squatting down near a seated customer will have a positive effect on tipping behaviour.
                                                      2. EVALUATION: May be other reason for size of tips like size of bill. Also gender. } Although study shows the correlation between gesture and tip size.
                                                        1. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Restaurant chains train waiters/tresses to squat while taking orders. Unsuspecting customers may see this as a friendly gesture. But study shows that there are other motives.
                                                      3. TOUCH: A form of non-verbal communication where information is conveyed by physical contact between two people.
                                                        1. FISHER. RYTTING, HELSIN
                                                          1. AIM: To see the effect of touch on people's attitudes.METHOD: Female students in the library were handed books by a confederate who was acting as a librarian. 1.half the students briefly touched n the hand while being handed books. 2.other half wasn't touched. RESULTS: Questioned later. Students who were touched: much more positive attitude towards library+librarian than those who werent touched. Students werent aware that they were touched. CONCLUSION: Touch has a positive+ unconscious effect on attitudes.
                                                            1. EVALUATION: All female. Also decepetion+ethical issues and the females didn't know they were part of a experiment.
                                                              1. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: People may deliberatly touch to manipulate the person's attitudeds towards them
                                                      4. HOW IMPORTANT IS PERSONAL SPACE?
                                                        1. STATUS- ZANN
                                                          1. AIM:To see if status affects personal space. METHOD: Zahn observed people of the same status approach each other, then people of different status approach each other. RESULTS: People of the same status approached each other with a higher degree of closeness than people of unequal status.
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