Verbal Communication: Conveying information with vocal sounds and words
ARGYLE, ALKEMA AND GILMOUR.
AIM: tone of voice has
any effect when
interpreting a verbal
interpreted, 5X effect
than message itself.
CONCLUSION: Tone of
voice v important when
DAVITZ AND DAVITZ
AIM: Effect of Paralinguistics
on assessment of emotion.
METHOD: Listen to tape
recordings, assess emotion
from Paraliguistic cues: Tone
Of Voice, Intonation, Emphasis.
RESULTS: V high level of
accuracy in recognising these
amusement, disgust, fear.
has great importance when
EVALUATION OF THESE
STUDIES: } May explain why
some people may have trouble
getting verbal informtion
across as their tone of voice
contradict what they are saying
} Artificial setting. Participants
focusing on different aspects of
communication, when in real
life we dont pay attention, but
rather focus on the actual
Paralinguistics: Vocal features that accompany speech.
Tone Of Voice: The way words are spoken to convey emotion.
Intonation: Inflection in the voice while speaking.
Emphasis: Giving importance to some words.
Non-Verbal Communication: Conveying messages without speech, or vocal sounds.
How Do We Use Eye Contact?
Eye Contact: When two people in conversation look into
each others eyes at the same time.
AIM: How interrupting eye
contact affects conversation.
METHOD: Pairs of participants
having coversations. Condtions:
with and without glasses.
RESULTS: Dark glasses worn:
more interruptions and pauses
than when not worn.
important to ensure smooth
flow of conversation.
EVALUATION:Studies on Pupil
Dilation help us understand why eye
makeup is so popular. The effect of
making the eyes look larger and darker
may be unconscious signal for
Studies of eye movement
help us to understand why
we may feel uncomfortable if
some one who is talking to us
never breaks eye contact
with us. } We have no control
over Pupil Dilation. A
drawback of this is that we
can't hide our emotions.
Pupil Dilation: When the pupils in the
eyes expand, to look larger.
AIM: Effect of Pupil Dilation on emotion.
METHOD:Shown two nearly identical pictures of a
girl but one of them Pupil Dilated. Participants asked
which picture looked more attractive.
RESULTS:Majority said that the picture with Dilated
pupils more attractive but couldn't say why that
picture. CONCLUSION: Pupil Dilation has a powerful
yet unconcious affect on emotion.
EVALUATION: Asking people to get
acquainted then observing is a very
artificial situation and wouldn't
happen in real life. Participants may
have acted differently than normal.
}Studies of eye contact does help us
know what we can do to make a
conversation run more smoothly.
HOW DO WE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS?
HEMISPHERES OF THE BRAIN: T he brain is divided into two halves; called the left and right hemispheres.
AIM: To Look at the relationship between the
hemispheres of the brain and facial expressions.
METHOD: Pictures of people showing different
emotions were cut in half. New faces were created
with the cut half and its mirror image. The each pair of
new faces were shown to the participants and they
were asked which one they liked better..
RESULTS:Majority said they liked the left half face stuck
with the reflection. Why? Because it looked 'warmer'.
CONCLUSION: Left side of the face seems to express
more emotion than the right side.
EVALUATION: } Studies that include pictures are usually low in ecological validity: we
don't stare at still images and judge human emotion.}Other aspects of non-verbal
communication give more accurate clues with facial expressions. Doesn't work well in isolation.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:We why prefer some profile pictures to others.
HOW DO WE USE BODY LANGUAGE?
Body Language: General term to
describe aspects of non-verbal
Posture: Positioning of our body, regarded as a
non-verbal communication signal.
OPEN POSTURE: Arms folded/Legs crossed
CLOSED POSTURE: Arms open/legs not crossed.
MCGINLEY, LEFEVRE, MCGINLEY
AIM: To see effect of open/closed posture when
having a conversation. METHOD:A confederate
approached individuals and had conversations
with them. Condition one: opne posture.
Condition two:closed posture. Afterwards
experimenter asked the individuals what they
thought of the experimenter. RESULTS: Open
posture: attractive + friendly. Closed:
opposite.CONCLUSION: The posture one adopts
makes a difference on how much they are liked.
EVALUATION: Unethical as individuals didn't know that there was
confederates being used. Individuals didn't know that they were part of
an experiment. Deception. }Could be other factors influencing the
outcome of the experiment like personality differences and preference.
Confederate may have been appealing to some individuals and not to
Postural Echo: Mirroring another persons body position.
AIM: Effect of Postural Echo when having a conversation.
METHOD: Confederate approached individuals and had a
conversation with them condition one:postural echo. condition
two:no postural echo.Afterwards experimenter asked the
individuals what they thought about the confederate.RESULTS:
Postural echo: liked confederate. got on well together. No
postural echo: convo was awkward and confederate wasn't liked
as much. CONCLUSION: Postural echo gives unconsious message
PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Counsellers may adopt
postural echo to develop closer relationships with
their clients. Clients may reveal more information
about themselves if a counseller does so.
Confederate: an actor who is appearing to be a genuine participant but is
rather working for the experimenter.
GESTURE: a form of non-verbal communication in which information is
conveyed by conscious or unconscious movement by a part of the body.
LYNN AND MYNIER
AIM: To see the effect of gesture used
by waiters/tresses in the tipping
behavior of customers in a restaurant.
METHOD: While taking orders from
seated customers waiters either
1.standing upright or 2.squatting down
to allow more eye contact to be made.
RESULTS: When squatted: larger tips
made than standing upright.
CONCLUSION: The gesture of squatting
down near a seated customer will have
a positive effect on tipping behaviour.
EVALUATION: May be other reason for size of tips like
size of bill. Also gender. } Although study shows the
correlation between gesture and tip size.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Restaurant chains train waiters/tresses
to squat while taking orders. Unsuspecting customers may see this
as a friendly gesture. But study shows that there are other
TOUCH: A form of non-verbal communication where information is conveyed by physical contact between two people.
FISHER. RYTTING, HELSIN
AIM: To see the effect of touch on people's attitudes.METHOD: Female students in the library
were handed books by a confederate who was acting as a librarian. 1.half the students briefly
touched n the hand while being handed books. 2.other half wasn't touched. RESULTS: Questioned
later. Students who were touched: much more positive attitude towards library+librarian than
those who werent touched. Students werent aware that they were touched. CONCLUSION: Touch
has a positive+ unconscious effect on attitudes.
EVALUATION: All female. Also decepetion+ethical issues and the
females didn't know they were part of a experiment.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: People may deliberatly touch to manipulate the person's attitudeds towards them
HOW IMPORTANT IS PERSONAL SPACE?
AIM:To see if status affects personal space. METHOD: Zahn observed people of the same
status approach each other, then people of different status approach each other. RESULTS:
People of the same status approached each other with a higher degree of closeness than
people of unequal status.