Epistemology: Knowledge & Perception Key Terms

Lilli Flahh
Flashcards by Lilli Flahh, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilli Flahh
Created by Lilli Flahh almost 3 years ago


AS level Philosophy (Epistemology) Flashcards created by Lilli Flahh on 26/03/2017.

Resource summary

Question Answer
direct realism the view that the immediate objects of perception are mind independent objects and their properties, which we have direct access to as they exist in the external world
illusion occurs when one's perception misrepresents reality (shared experience, one sense only)
hallucination the perception of an object or objects in the absence of these objects, which feels qualitatively no different from a genuine perception (individual, multisensory)
perceptual variation the fact that perception is perspectival, and the same conditions can be perceived entirely differently depending on the relative position of the viewer to the event
time-lag our perception depends upon light being reflected off objects and being detected by our eyes, and there is a small delay in this process
indirect realism the immediate objects of perception are mind dependent sense data which are caused by and represent mind independent objects in the external world
sense data (4 things) sense data are (1) subjective, (2) mind dependent, (3) private and (4) infallible
primary qualities properties that exist within the objects themselves and are essential to the objects, independent of human perception
secondary qualities dependent upon human perception, inessential to the object, caused by primary qualities
idealism antirealist theory of perception, the immediate objects of perception are mind dependent sense data which is the only reality
the objectivity of space and time objects continue to exist and change even when they are outside of all human perception
solipsism the view that all that exists is my mind
ability knowledge practical form of knowledge that involves knowing how to perform certain tasks
acquaintance knowledge when one can be said to have come into contact with something and in doing so been made aware of it (I know your dad; I know the area)
propositional knowledge otherwise known as factual knowledge, consciously believing that a proposition is true
tripartite view S knows that P if and only if S believes that P, S is justified in believing that P, and P is true
belief the willingness to assent to a proposition
false lemma false belief; inference from false belief(s)
epistemic virtues (list 5) careful analysis of available evidence, lack of bias and prejudice, a clear and open mind, a reliable memory & the ability to make sound judgements
concept empiricism all concepts are derived from sense experience
impressions forceful and vivid perceptions of the mind
ideas faint and obscure perceptions of the mind
simple idea one which cannot be broken down any further, an atomic element of thought
complex idea a conglomerate of simpler ideas which it can be broken down into
innate concept concept present in the mind prior to or at birth
knowledge empiricism all synthetic knowledge is a posteriori; all knowledge of the world is gained through sense experience
a priori intuition foundational truths of reason so self evident they cannot be doubted without self contradiction
a priori demonstration the deduction of more complex truths from a combination of a priori intuitions and a priori reasoning
a priori independent of sense experience
a posteriori dependent on sense experience
analytic true by definition; the predicate is contained within the subject
synthetic predicate is not contained within the subject
necessarily true must be true, cannot be doubted without self contradiction; true of all possible worlds
contingently true happen to be true but might not have been, can be denied without contradiction
possible world a way the world could have been
deductive argument the truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion
inductive argument the premises support, but cannot guarantee the conclusion; one can agree with the premises and deny the conclusion without self contradiction
realism objects exist independently of the mind
antirealism there are no objects that exist independently of the mind
epistemology the study of knowledge
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