The Origins of Détente 1969-1972 Flashcards

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Flashcards by jacksearle, updated more than 1 year ago
jacksearle
Created by jacksearle over 7 years ago
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A-Levels Cold War (Détente) Flashcards on The Origins of Détente 1969-1972 Flashcards, created by jacksearle on 05/07/2014.

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Question Answer
What did Détente mean in terms of the Cold War? Broadly - it means a period of time in which the US and USSR attempted to reach general agreement on arms reduction and trade - also characterised by the summits and a reduction in hostile propaganda - did not try to resolve ideological difference
What was the start-date of Détente and why? Nixon came to power 1969 - one of his key policies therefore it can be stated that Détente started in 69
What was the key reason behind BOTH powers wanting to pursue Détente? Wanting to avoid nuclear war - 1963-1969 USSR started to close missile gap - by 69 MAD had been established - both recognised it as essential to avoid nuclear war
What were the 4 main reasons behind the US pursuing Détente? 1. Vietnam 2. Economics 3. Kissinger's realpolitik 4. Normalistation
In what way was Vietnam a reason for the US to pursue Détente? Nixon's primary govt objective was to withdraw troops from Vietnam - war had weakened US moral authority and was very expensive - cost $30 billion in 1969 alone - Hoped that withdrawal could be achieved - at least in part - by Détente, as Brezhnev had been a key supported of Vietcong
In what way was economics a reason for the US to pursue Détente? By 1970, the long post-war boom was coming to an end - Inflation reached 6% - Unemployment rose to roughly 5% early 70s - collapse of Bretton Woods currency system made international trade less stable - Détente offered partial solution - had potential to reduce defence spending and increase trade between the 2
In what way was Kissinger's realpolitik a reason for US to pursue Détente? D was an expression of realpolitik - focused on practical issues such as arms reduction rather than ideology - Realpolitik meant US maintained realistic goals in negotiation with USSR and China - rather than unrealistic ideological aims
In what way was Normalisation a reason for the US to pursue Détente? Kissinger believed that process of negotiation could normalise relations between the two - He believed that D could created a framework around which the 2 could work - preventing any erratic behaviour on the part of the USSR
What were the 4 main reasons for the USSR to pursue Détente 1. Economics 2. Nuclear Parity 3. China 4. The 3rd World
In what way was economics a reason for the USSR to pursue Détente? USSR economy roughly a sixth of the size of the US's - population demanded consumer goods that Soviet economy couldn't fulfil - D allowed Soviets to ease economic problems by reducing defence spending and encouraging loans and trade with West
In what way was Nuclear Parity a reason for the USSR to pursue Détente? USSR economy couldnt produce nukes as effectively as US economy - By end of 69 - US had 28200 warheads - USSR had 11000 - D offered USSR chance of achieving parity with US through arms agreements
In what way was China a reason for the USSR to pursue Détente? Sino-Soviet split and Sino-US rapprochement caused politburo to fear a Sino-US anti-Soviet alliance - D was an attempt to diffuse this by creating good working relationship with US
In what way was the 3rd world a reason for USSR to pursue Détente? Brezhnev was committed to extending influence in 3rd world - this risked destabilising relations with US - D was an attempt to placate US and therefore extend 3rd world influence without risking further conflict
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