US Emergence in Global Affairs IB Review

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IB IB History Flashcards on US Emergence in Global Affairs IB Review, created by AlisonH on 05/12/2014.

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Monroe Doctrine By the 1820s, the Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas had been replaced unstable states. At the Congress of Vienna, which rebuilt Europe following the Napoleonic Wars, Russia emerged as a force with definite interests in the North American continent. With this in mind, President Monroe and his Secretary of State, Quincy-Adams, sent a note to Congress that would later become the Monroe Doctrine. This Doctrine raise its head throughout the 20th century.
Roosevelt Colloray President Teddy Roosevelt would expand on Monroe Doctrine through the Roosevelt Corollary. He added that the US had the right to intervene to manage the independent states of the Western Hemisphere.
Manifest Destiny it was inevitable that the US was expand beyond its 1840s boundaries and eventually stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It fit well with ideas such as American exceptionalism and continentalism, and it could be molded to any number of specific world views. It also remerged after the Civil War as the Us looked to expand outside its borders.
Expansion as a Moral Duty Social Darwinism- Survival of the fittest. Herbert Spencer saw the world as evolving from homogenous to heterogeneous as exemplified in the modern industrial state that was driven by individualism. The ideas of Darwin and Spencer spread. Latin American leaders began developing a view of society as going from simple to complex. This was reflected in the massive European migrations to Latin America which was encouraged by leaders who wanted to increase the European influence on Latin American countries. In Canada, Spencer's ideas led the journalist Goldwin Smith to the conclusion that Canada was not economically developed enough to be viable in the late 19th century. This led Smith to the solution of Canada joining the US.
John Fiske, Josiah Strong Fiskes writings and lectures emphasized the evolutionary superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race as evidenced in population growth, geographic influence, and economic strength. He envisioned a day when the world would resemble the Us in institutions, language, and religion. helped develop an intellectual foundation for US expansion. In his book, Our Country, Strong posted that the Anglo Saxon race especially as it had been developed in the US was destined to dominate the globe. He saw domination by what he thought was a superior race as duty. He thought the combo of liberal democracy and Christianity that existed int he US was what would lead to progress in the world. Sentiments like these were not confined in the US, as Europe was carving out Africa and others. They to looked to racist theories in order to justify actions. The superiority of the white race arguments appear in German, French, and British imperialist arguments One of the most famous justifications came in a Rudyard Kipling poem called "The White Man's Burden" that expressed what many had been arguing.
Expansion as practical necessity While vague notions of duty, destiny, and race may have inspired imperial visions in the US, other were more practical. The realist approach to US expansion took the rapid population growth, economic expansion, and geographic expansion if the US as starting points and looked at the economic and military needs to ensure further might. The leading realist was Alfred Thayer Mahan. Mahan saw things such as coal availability around the world and control of advantageous waterways to be vastly important. He was looking for a canal cross Panama and islands that could protect it. Mahan's thesis found avid readers around the world and was a major reason that Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany embarked on a naval building program. In the US his book found a home with the likes of Teddy Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge.
Economic reasons for expansion Even those who saw expansion as more divine or moral mission, saw the expansion of the Anglo-Saxon. Race as inextricably linked to the expansion of its institutions and economic systems. The leaders of the domestic expansion also sought markets beyond North America. Despite a great deal of European capital flowing into the US, US oil and still sought new markets around the globe and in doing so had new competitors in GB and Germany. Other US companies such as DuPont, Colt, and Singer also explored foreign markets with their manufactured goods.
Economic Reasons For Expansion, Continued The recession that hit the world after 1873 meant that people had to work that much harder to maintain profits. The move to the gold standard by most industrializing powers by the 1870s also placed downward pressure on prices until new gold deposits were discovered. The gold standard did however make currency easily trade-able because it could be converted to its equal value in gold. Although the US had massive domestic markets, there was a growing since by the 1890s that the US economy was destined to produce more than it consumed so it had to expand. Another recession gripped the US in 1893. The solution seemed to be the expansion of the US itself. The recession was radicalizing the working class, and there was no natural place for these people to go make a better life. Urban centers were also continuing to grow and immigrants were continuing to come.
Political Expansion In some cases of Foreign expansion in the second half of the 19th century, policy and official action seemed hard paced to keep pace with the actions of its citizens and officials abroad. In the Samoan Islands, Us merchant ships had used the island increasingly as a coaling station. The strategic importance of the islands was also not lost on the navy which had contemplated. Naval base at Pago Pago in the 1870s. Despite Congressional rejection of a formal treaty with Samoa at that time, us commercial interest continued and by the end of the decade a treaty established a formal relationship between the Samoans and the US. The British and the Germans were not about to allow the US to have free reign over the Samoan islands, so after some tense encounters they agree to a three way protectorate. By 1889, there was a two way split of the islands between Germany and the US
Politival Expansion (Hawaii) The Hawaiian islands also grew as an important station between the US and China trade. Missionaries, merchants, and sailors settled in the islands throughout the mid century. As the non-native population increased, stories of the islands commercial potential reached the US and sugar plantations soon followed. Pearl Harbor also became a prime target for an easily defendable natural harbor from for the US navy. Hawaiian sugar trade with the US provided a reason and method for the US to exert more control on the Hawaiian Islands. In 1875, the US dropped all tariffs on Hawaiian sugars and guaranteed against any third party influence making Hawaiian basically a protectorate. By 1887, the US have had the use of Pearl Harbor. The US commercial influence in the grew steadily. Fruit and sugar plantations made up the bulk of these enterprises made up the bulk of these enterprises with the Us as it's sole destination. When a new tariff was introduced in 1890, Hawaiian sugar interests fell through the cracks. The bill also paid subsides to US sugar producers. All at once Hawaiian sugar producers were subject to the tariffs and not eligible for the subsidy Fearing economic ruin, us citizens in the islands took matters into their own hands and overthrew the young Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani early in 1893. Those involved immediately petitioned the US gov for annexation to end the payment of the tariff and get the subsidy. The request caught the US of guard making them confront whether they wanted to be a Imperialistic power. The immediate answer was not right now. The president, Grover Cleveland, might have been in favor of the annexation but the public and Congress were split. Cleveland sent a fact finding mission that found that the rev was by US interest with very little native support. Cleveland could either despise of the revs or give intermediate status to Hawaii. He choose the status. This was only a temporary solution. By the time McKinley took office in 1897, the global context had changed and the President and Congress agree to annex Hawaii
Venezuela The Monroe Doctrine would again emerge as vital US policy in the mid 1890s when a boundary dispute re-erupted between Great Britain and Venezuela. Gold had been found in the border region between Venezuela and British Guiana raising the stakes. The relative merits of the gold standard and the free coinage of silver had been building as an important issue, both with politicians and the public. President Cleveland and other supporters of the gold standard saw the new gold could take some fight out of the free silver agitators Cleveland was torn between the public and congressional pressure of a strong response to the British influence in the Western Hemisphere and his own views. Cleveland came to the conclusion that a third party arbitrator was needed and he let the British Foreign minister know. The US Secretary of State, sent a letter to the British reasserting the Monroe Doctrine principals and making veiled threats of aggressive action if the British did not go to arbitration. The British responded they would not submit to arbitration and the Monroe Doctrine does not apply because it was not international law. Cleveland responded to the British rebuff, with an aggressive speech that surprised the British. It led to the British agreeing to arbitration and it solidified the Monroe Doctrine.
Spanish- American War By the 1890’s the US had invested millions in Cuba. In 1895, Jose Marti launches a war for independence in Cuba. Spanish respond by herding civilians into concentration camps where they died from hunger and disease. During the war, the Cubans and the Spanish were destroying US property. Americans favored the Cubans because their independence battle was close to their own struggle and they did not like Spanish tactics in the war. Some business man however, wanted to see the Spanish win in order to protect their economic interest. Newspaper Editors Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst heightened the US favoring Cubans by exaggerating the Spanish treatment of the Cubans. In Feb 1898, Hearst publishes an intercepted letter from Spain’s ambassador that calls McKinley a stupid politician.
Spanish-American War Continued McKinley warns the Spanish to make peace, however they don’t grant independence. With the war continuing, McKinley sends the battleship Maine to protect Us citizens in Cuba. In Feb of 1898, the Maine blew up in Havana. Many blamed Spain for the explosion even though it could not be proved, building public opinion for the war. On April 15 Congress declares war, and states the US has no intention of annexing Cuba. US troops land in Guantanamo Bay in 1898. They were poorly equipped with old weapons, heavy uniforms, and rotten food. The army consisted of several units including Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, who made their name by taking the high ground at Battle of San Juan Hills. Two days after San Juan Hill, the Spanish tried to escape but they were destroyed by the US blockade. Being outnumbered and surrounded the Spanish surrender in Cuba and shortly after in Puerto Rico. George Dewey’s squadron of ships attacks the Spanish fleet in the Philippines while a Filipino nationalist army fights the war on land. Once Us troops land, Spanish surrender in the Philippines. Most of US deaths in the war were from illness.
Treaty of Paris Spanish gave up Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and bought the Philippines. Tellar Amendment meant the US could not take possession of Cuba. With the win, the US becomes a world power and has a new empire.
Postwar Policy (Span-Am War) After the Spanish American War, the US was fine setting up a colonial regime in the Philippines, but it disavowed the approach in China. By the end of the 19th century the European powers were taking an advantage of a weakening China regime in order to expand their influence. These expanding interest threatened to leave the US behind even though a significant part of their Asian Foreign policy had be en to protect Chinese trade
The open door policy John Hay, the US Secretary of State, had to devise a way to assert US trading interest in China without going to war. His answer was the open door policy. The open door policy stated there was to be no discrimination of a Foreign power within a country's sphere of influence and the existing tariff structure set by the Chinese gov would stay in effect. Hay proclaimed the open door in diplomatic notes sent to the major European powers. With no military threat to back it up and no international authority to enforce it, the major European powers could follow it or ignore it as they saw fit. It would take an international incident to give the US the leverage to enforce it. Chinese nationalists had long bridled at the gradual erosion of the their economic and political sovereignty at the hands of European powers. This rage turned into the Boxer rebellion against the the British embassy in Beijing. A multi-national force, including many Americans, eventually ended the siege. The resolution of the siege gave the US a say in the end and a chance to push for the open door policy. Hay also pushed for the territorial integrity of China making it independent as long as it was open for free trade
Big Stick Diplomacy When as assassin killed President McKinley, it catapulted Teddy Roosevelt into the White House. Roosevelt was a progressive who believed the US rise on the world stage depended on a modern , scientific , and professional approach to everything from industry to the military to diplomacy The return of economic prosperity helped fuel optimism.Under Teddy, the US military would move fm an ad hoc civilian army to a more centralized professional force. The diplomatic force would be modernized with specialized training and exams for those who would recognize the US. Teddy also believed it was duties of countries like the US to bring the benefits of civilization to the backwards corners of the universe. Inherent in that notion was that US would have to become more involved in world affairs�. Teddy's progressive and international ideas were combined with his admiration for the military as a show of strength to Big Stick Diplomacy. This was the notion that the US could obtain its goals if it had a credible military threat . As an ardent follower of Mahan, Teddy knew this meant the need for a large navy. Between 1898 and 1913, the Us navy constructed 25 battleships and doubled its personnel. In 1907, Roosevelt paraded the fleet, called the Great White fleet, around the world. "Big stick" comes from the proverb, "speak softly and carry a big stick". On occasion Roosevelt could speak softly. When Russia and Japan went to war in 1905, it was Roosevelt who helped broker the peace. Under Roosevelt, the US grew closer to the UK then ever before, and he helped to mediate a settlement on Morocco in 1906. But there was also the big stick. Partially on the strength of the American fleet the Americans and the Japanese came to an agreement on the status quo in the Pacific. But it was Latin America where the big stick became the most evident.
The Panama Canal The prospect of cutting through land to connect the Pacific and the Atlantic had been discussed since the middle of the 19th century. The failure of a French attempt had brought scandal and disaster to the French The two primary questions where, "who would build it" , "where would it be". The US and Gb had agreed to cooperate on the project, but the time Teddy took office, this had fallen out of favor in the US. Where to locate the project proved to be complicated with the two main places being Nicaragua and Panama In 1903, Congress and the president decided on the Panama option. The US had only purchased the rights to build the canal. It had to acquire the land to build the canal which meant negotiations with Colombia who owned the land. The US gov proposed paying 10 million to Colombia for the lease and pay $250,000 a year for the duration of a 100 year lease The Colombian Senate rejected the treaty because it favored US interest. Roosevelt was enraged at the nerve of the Colombian gov, standing in the way of progress and civilization.. Since speaking softly had not worked, Roosevelt prepared the big stick. The fear that the US may switch to Nicaragua drove the Panamanians to revolt against the Colombian overlords. The arrival of Us battleships and troops prevented the Colombian gov from crushing the revolt. The US quickly recognized Panama which agreed to the same deal as the Colombians. In 1914, when the canal opened North Americans saw it as a testament of American ingenuity, hard work, and industry---a crowning achievement of the Progressive era. To others it was another example of imperialism backed by Western technological advances. It also meant the US controlled one of the worlds most important waterways in order to also achieve further control of the Caribbean
Venezuela, Santo Domingo, and the Roosevelt Corollary While the Monroe Doctrine may have prevented European’s from physically intervening, it did not prevent European capital from flooding into the region through the end of the 19th century. When early in Roosevelt's presidency Venezuela defaulted on loans to Germans, British, and Italian creditors, these govs used force to secure payment and began shelling the port city of Puerto Cabello. This was something that Roosevelt, the US, and the Monroe Doctrine could not stand. To prevent further similar situations, Roosevelt formulated a policy that became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The Corollary was an assurance that if nations in Central and South America could not keep their financial houses in order, the US would step in and manage their finances for them. The US would even go to the point of collecting debts for European powers. Roosevelt wanted to take out any reason the European powers would have for military intervention
Responding to extraterritoriality Extraterritoriality is a principle by which a country enforces its laws outside its own territory. During the later 19th century and early 20th centuries this became an important tool of imperialism. Taken to the extreme it meant British and Us citizens in other countries follow British and US laws. This could be very handy to Foreign businessman with contracts, but it was a problem for countries trying to exercise their sovereignty in the face of imperialism. Two Latin American countries developed doctrines in response to the principal. In the late 19th century, the Argentine jurist Carlos Calvo argued that the principal had no basis in international law. Calvo argued that debt had to be enforced int he countries court where the debt incurred. He developed this into a doctrine that countries should be entirely free to treat foreigners in their borders as they saw fitArgentine Foreign minister Luis Drago later developed a more workable and specific doctrine by which countries could not use force to collect their debts owed to its nationalists. The Hague Conference in 1907 adopted a form of the Drago Doctrine
Dollar Diplomacy William Howard Taft succeeded Roosevelt as president in 1908, ad be sought to hold the sMe course diplomatically. Taft however was less likely to use the Big Stick. He looked to the apparent success of the Roosevelt Corollary and expanded on what he saw as the lesson gleaned from it. This became known as Dollar Diplomacy. Dollar Diplomat sought to replace US military might with the power of its burgeoning economy and the Financial know how of Progressive Financial wizards. Dollar Diplomacy wanted to remove any pretext for European intervention by managing the Financial affairs of those who were backward by US standards and thus ensure European debts as being paid. Loans from US bankers would be used to pay off European markets. Financial managers would then move in and remake the economy, if not in the US model, then to the US advantage. Tax collection would become more efficient, budgets regularized, a form of the gold standard adopted There developed a market gap between the theory of Dollar Diplomacy and it's practice. As rational as the measures seemed in the US, Latin America could not help but see them as thinly veiled imperialism. Costa Rica and Guatemala rejected the principals outright-refusing to sign treaties based in the principles of Dollar Diplomacy. Honduran nationalist persuaded their Congress to do the same which provoked a US sponsored rev to get a gov that would agree to the terms. The Dominican agreement also broke down in 1912, requiring the US military to restore the obligations of Dollar Diplomacy Nicaragua was another trouble spot for US diplomacy. In response to the nationalist leader Jose Santos Zelya, us mining interest sponsored a rev eventually backed by Taft's gov and the uS Marine Corp. When the US Senate would not ratify the Dollar Diplomacy treaty, private US companies and banks acquired a controlling interesting Nicaraguan banking and railroads. This economic imperialism was bound to enrage already tense nationalist sentiments and more Marines were called on to suppress the rev in 1912. The marines stayed for 13 years Dollar Diplomacy was not restricted to West Africa. By 1908, Liberia in West Africa was deep in debt. Surrounding its was British and French colonies that the US feared would annex it. To prevent it, Taft approved a loan and sent a Us warship. Nevertheless, Liberia's financial and political problems continued Taft also used Dollar Diplomacy as a way to curtail Japanese and Russian influence in China and Manchuria. The Us arranged itself as an investor in the thing needed for economic growth in Manchuria, the railroad. Eventually the Japanese and the Russians split Manchuria's economic interest between them and the Chinese gov was not strong enough to oppose. The US was unable to secure support from the British or French, so they had to settle for more moderate financial intervention.
WW1 Industrial output, trade, and possession of an empire were the yardsticks of greatness. Wilson argued that the US needed to stay neutral so the different ethnic groups in the US would not be in conflict. Many Americans wanted to stay out of the war because they thought it was a conflict in a distant land, while others wanted to get involved because they identified with the ethnic groups involved. (THEN LUSITANIA< ZIMMERMAN) At the end of 1915, Wilson prepares to go to war. By 1916, Congress passes legislation expanding the Army. To build an army, Wilson encouraged Americans to volunteer for service, and he gets Congress to pass the Selected Service Act which authorizes a draft. US needed to switch to a war time economy so created. War Industry Board- led by Bernard Baruch regulated all industry. Food Admin- led by Herbert Hoover. Regulated ag through regulation of prices and encouraged Americans to eat less. Committee of Public Information: Propaganda Office. The draft caused controversy. Many resisted and they were arrested. Others tried to avoid it by ignoring. Also had conscientious objectors, whose moral or religious beliefs kept them from serving. Women formed the Women’s Peace Party and Women’s International League of Peace, but they transitioned to support of troops as combat started. In 1917, Congress passes the Espionage Act. which punished disloyal behavior and enacted severe penalties for obstructing army recruiters. Congress also passed the Sedition Act which made it illegal to use disloyal, profane, or abusive language. Enthusiasm for the war took a turn against German immigrants in the US. CPI portrayed them as the primary enemy, and there was occasional violence.
WW1 Continued Many women went to work for the first time, some joined the Red Cross and American Women’s Hospital, and many women enlisted in the army corps of nurses. The expanded role of women got Wilson to support the 19th amendment. African Americans. - used the war as a way to show loyalty and patriotism fighting on segregated units with white officers. - African Americans left the South to get away from racism and for economic advancement. african Americans in the North even encouraged it. - They did not completely escape discrimination but they did find economic advancement. Mexicans moved north with increased demand for ag. Some were seasonal while others formed their own neighborhoods. Lenin portrayed the war as an imperialistic land grab. Wilson wanted to portray the war as being about peace and freedom. He also wanted to have peace without victory. Thats what led his proposal of the 14 points The 14 points promoted openness, encouraged independence, supported freedom, wanted open diplomacy, freedom of the trade and sea, a reduction in armaments, the right for people to chose their own gov, and the League of Nations. Other Effects of the end of the War! - ethnic groups were thrown together which caused future issues - Break up of Ottoman empire meant other groups were thrown together in places like the Middle East - New nations were mandates which meant were under European control until they thought they could practice there own gov
Canada and WW1 Canada gained independence in 1867, but it still had a confusing Foreign policy structure in 1914. As a dominion of the British Empire, Gb essentially controlled its Foreign policy which meant she was bound by the course the British would take in World War 1 Over the course of the 12 years before 1914, the Canadian military had been gradually drawn into a more centralized command structure in terms of imperial operations and by 1912 Canadian forces were integrated into imperial defense plans. Despite all this, there were hints that the issue of British command of Canadian soldiers would prove contentious and in fact would come to a head during the war.
Mobilization In the midst of a heated debate regarding the construction of the Canadian navy, Wilfred Laurier announced that when Britain was at war Canada was at war. Although Canada had been debating her place in the British Empire almost since the signing of the British North America Act with some advocating greater independence and others arguing caution and the benefits of Dominion Status. In 1914, the fact remained much as Laurier had characterized it Although Canada was in the war when Great Britain decelerated war in August of 1914, the manner of Canada's participation was for the Canadian parliament to to decide. That said, there was little debate. Canada would commit to the total war effort. Canada would send men and material and would mobilize the home front to the war effort. The initial commitment was a contingent of 25,000 men equipped and delivered to the European theatre at Canada's expense-initially estimate at 50 million. To facilitate the mobilization the gov passed the War Measures Act at the outbreak of the war. The act reserved for the fed gov the right to govern by executive decree in times of perceived " war, invasion, or insurrection. The mobilization effort would be dominated by the minister of militia. Hughes operated free from gov interference. Within A month of the outbreak of the war, 30000 men had assembled at Valcartier, Quebec for training. Khaki uniforms and the Riss rifle were ordered in huge numbers. Ships were contracted an preparations were made. The departure of Canada's first troops, resembled the chaotic preparations of the US chaotic departure during the Spanish American War. Nevertheless, the first Canadians landed in Great Britain in October of 1914, and the gov ordered a second of the same strength be raisedThe volunteer spirit was not limited to those seeking active service in Europe. Organizations such as the YMCA and other existing associations turned their efforts to raising money and material for the war effort. The Canadian Patriotic Fund was chartered to raise that would bridge the gap between what soldiers would earn in uniform and what they earned as civilians thus taking some of the Financial burden off of those who remained behind. Schools, clubs, and mutual benefit societies raised money to buy food, uniforms, and even weapons Despite the enthusiasm with which most Canadians approached the war effort, there was dissent especially as the war dragged on and the slaughter became more apparent in France. Pacifist religious sects, such as the Mennonites and Doukhobors, remained opposed to the war quietly. Event those who morally opposed the war, the Methodist, were won over on the ground that it was a moral crusade against those who would use the war to further their national goals, namely Germany Recruiting remained relatively easy throughout 1914 and 1915. By June of 1915, the Canadians had force of over 100,000 soldiers overseas with a goal of one man in reserve for every two at the front. This was was in the face of enormous casualty figures which no one had ever see. The brutal arithmetic of the trenches, however dictated that each division would need 15,000 replacements a year. The decentralized recruiting system continually lowered the medical and height standards in order to meet the need. Volunteer recruiting peaked in early 1916 and fell of from that point. In 1917, when the Battle of Arras erupts the Canadians have four units in France with another in Great Britain, but they can not replace losses
Quebec Recruiting in Quebec had lagged behind English Canada from the beginning of the war. There was one French speaking regiment but it was led by English Officers. Demographically, men married earlier in Quebec which sank the pool of single man Recruiting in the province was organized by a Protestant clergy man which excluded the most influential social institution in the province---the Catholic Church--from the recruitment process. Anti-French education laws also helped convince French Canadians that this was not there war The employment opportunities by increased production and higher wages seemed to be a more sensible choice to young French Canadians. Politically, Henri Bourassa was expressing his opposition to the war openly by 1916 as were many of his nationalists allies which curtailed Quebec recruitment even further
Canadian Home front The war was a human tragedy, but it also changed the short term condition and long term structure of the Canadian economy. Like other countries, Canada entered the war in a depression. The increased production and vastly expanded army meant that unemployment would be a memory. The massive demand that accompanied the war and the physical devastation of Europe meant that Canada had room to grow Initially, in Canada, this expansion would be in the traditional role of supplier of natural resources. Farming increased dramatically early in the war and pushed wheat production to new levels. The massive demand by the decreased European wheat supply also sent prices higher. The end result is the value of wheat exports do led but it would never match he amount of grain produced Wartime necessity also aided the Canadian lumber industry. Dairy and meat also found new markets. Mineral extraction also increased Munitions production was not a traditional sector of strength in the Canadian economy, but the nature of the war required it to be. The initial system could not last under the demands of the war though. Initial war production suffered in both quality and quantity. The Shell Commission set up in 1914 could not keep up with the purchase orders from both the Canadian and British armies because of patronage and profiteering. The Imperial Munitions Board replaced the Shell Commission in 1915. The quantity and quality of munitions improved almost immediately The issues with the Shell Commission and munitions production illustrated that the Canadian gov did not have an overall plan for wartime economic coordination. Rather, it responded to issues as they erupted. The War Powers Act gave the gov a powerful tool to address these situations.
Financing the War With a massive war effort comes a massive financial burden. Canada like all countries had taxation and credit to meet the burden. Taxation was against what the finance minister, Thomas White, wanted to do, but there were really few alternatives. A multitude of indirect taxes descended on the Canadian Public. Steamship, railroad tickets, coffee, sugar, and others were taxed. Tariffs also increased. It was clear though that indirect taxes would not be enough. The government passed the first direct tax which taxed profits made on war materials. It was not the last. In 1917, Canada introduced its first income tax. It still did not meet the need so Canada resulted to borrowing to meet the need Canada was already in debt when war broke out. Years of railroad construction and subsides had pushed gov expenditures will beyond the income. The doorbell with wartime debt was where was who could they borrow from? The Brits, who were their usual source of income, were strapped and become in debt to Canada by the end. The Us become one creditor because they were free from much wartime expenditure and they were flush with war time profit. The other important source of income for Canada was 2.3 billion in war bonds. Provincial and local govs were also looking for credit which added to the federal burden. It left Canada in 5 billion in debt after World War 1 Inflation was also a major issue during the war. Canada was no longer on the Gold Standard, and the gov continued to print money. When this was added to the major increased demand prices almost doubled.
Leadership The war brought into focus the relationship between Canada and Great Britain. The fact that A British declaration of war and that Canada's constitution was made by the British Parliament highlighted its limits on independence When the war began, there was no doubt that Canada would come in on the side of the British. As Canada's commitment dragged on though the questions of dominion began to emerge. It was very clear in the matter of Canadian troop leadership At the outset of the war, British High Command gave brief consideration as to how Canadian troops would be distributed among British formations. Very early though they determined the best way would be Canadians formations led by British generals. Canadian leadership pushed for these troops to have their own commanders. They got it, but were still considered parts of the British army. Throughout 1914 and in to 1917 Canadian Prime Minister Borden began to realize that essentially Canadian troops had been turned over to the British government to do with them what they pleased. The Prime Minister found it to be more and more of a problem as the war dragged on that the Canadian parliament would have no say in the policy and strategy it's troops would undertake. Facing major casualties with no end in site, Borden went to Britain himself in the summer of 1915 to assess the situation for himself and argue for more significant decision making power for Canada. Finding no answers and condensation, Borden returned to Canada determined to raise enough troops where there concerns could not be ignored�s the war dragged in, the new British Prime minister David Lloyd George formed and Imperial War Cabinet with he British dominions included. From the cabinet, two things became very apparent: Britain wanted more from its imperial partners, and the imperial partners wanted a change in status
Quebec (Cont.) The war brought into focus the relationship between Canada and Great Britain. The fact that A British declaration of war and that Canada's constitution was made by the British Parliament highlighted its limits on independence When the war began, there was no doubt that Canada would come in on the side of the British. As Canada's commitment dragged on though the questions of dominion began to emerge. It was very clear in the matter of Canadian troop leadership At the outset of the war, British High Command gave brief consideration as to how Canadian troops would be distributed among British formations. Very early though they determined the best way would be Canadians formations led by British generals. Canadian leadership pushed for these troops to have their own commanders. They got it, but were still considered parts of the British army. Throughout 1914 and in to 1917 Canadian Prime Minister Borden began to realize that essentially Canadian troops had been turned over to the British government to do with them what they pleased. The Prime Minister found it to be more and more of a problem as the war dragged on that the Canadian parliament would have no say in the policy and strategy it's troops would undertake. Facing major casualties with no end in site, Borden went to Britain himself in the summer of 1915 to assess the situation for himself and argue for more significant decision making power for Canada. Finding no answers and condensation, Borden returned to Canada determined to raise enough troops where there concerns could not be ignored�s the war dragged in, the new British Prime minister David Lloyd George formed and Imperial War Cabinet with he British dominions included. From the cabinet, two things became very apparent: Britain wanted more from its imperial partners, and the imperial partners wanted a change in status
Political Unity and Division When the British dragged their empire into the war, the news was greeted with pledges of cooperation and support from politicians on both sides of the House of Commons. The united front, however, was built on circumstance more than it was on deeper political principles All could agree if not on the necessity of supporting Great Britain, then at least on opposing the dangers of "Prussianism" and the evils of an unprovoked expansionary war. How that was accomplished was another matter. The govs approach to meeting these ends was to place a great deal of power, money, and trust in the minister of militia. Sam Hughes was a bombastic, stubborn, energetic politician who had little use for parliament and the prime minister. He did have a great deal of use for the people who supported him and the ideas that took his fancy. His championing of the Ross Rifle which was a fine target weapon but incapable of surviving the rigors of a trench, left the district it was from flush with employment and the company flush with profits. It did however leave troops without a good rifle. His lack of a centralized recruiting system created chaos and mounting scandals and criticism forced Prime Minister Borden to fire him The corruption that accompanied Hughes system also opposed Bordens handling of the war. They started calling for a coalition gov. Even Borden himself saw it as necessary as the war dragged on. The combination of dwindling numbers and growing casualties brought about the formation of a Union Government
The conscription Crisis Unable to sustain the Canadian Corps through voluntary enlistment, Prime Minister Borden announced in 1917 to the House of Commons that conscription was the only option. Borden then went to the head of the opposing party Laurier and asked whether he would join him in a coalition gov. Because he was not asked before this was announced, Laurier saw a coalition gov as an endorsement of conscription, so he declined and set himself against it The Military Service Act was debated throughout the Summer of 1917 and passed by August. It would call p single men first, then provide for conscientious objectors. Borden hoped it would raise and additional 100000 men for the military. Borden however was unable to get the opposition leader to agree and he could not get the opposition to postpone the election which meant conscription would be decided at the polls. To bolster the chances for victory, the gov drafted and passed the Military Voters Act. The act said that soldiers overseas could vote. Because it was a one issue election, it allowed them to cast a yes or no vote on the current gov, and they could write in the name if a candidate if they knew it. A list of gov candidates came with the ballot. The Wartime Elections Act Significantly extended the right to vote to women who were relatives of soldiers who were serving or deceased. The same act removed the right to vote from immigrants in enemy countries As it became clear that pro-conscription forces would win the election, English speaking liberals began to take Borden up on his offer for a coalition gov. However politicians read the election, it was a hard fought affair which proved the conscription crisis was a divisive issue The election result was a Unionist majority. Borden lost most of Quebec but he carried the day on the strength of Ontario and Western Canada. Not surprisingly serving soldiers voted for the Unionist government In an effort to win the election the unionist promised a number of conscription exemptions including farmers sons and Mennonites. The sheer number of appeals was overwhelming the appeals process though. The conscription services in Quebec were unable to compel a large portion of the population to register. Facing mounting casualties, Borden ended most exemptions in 1918 causing riots and violence to erupt in Ontario and Quebec in the west the violence often turned in those seeking exemptions. In the west, violence often turned on those who were seeking exemptions. The division created by the crisis continued even to the end of the warBy the end of the war 24,000 conscripts had made their way to the war as reinforcements, and became an integral part of the end of the war. Although conscription was necessary to continue in the war it came at the cost of national disunity which would continue
At War The first contingent of the Canadian force arrived in England in 1914 and began training at the Salisbury plain in GB. While the bulk of Canadian troops served in a distinct division of the British army, some units served in other parts of the British army. Some Canadian specialist units served in other parts of e war, but most serve don't he Western Front The Canadians arrived in France in Feb of 1915. After some minor engagements in March, Canadian troops were stationed at the town of Ypres. On April 22, the opposite side of Germans launched chlorine gas for the first time on the western front. The ensuing Battle of the Ypres was a bloody affair that showed how inexperienced how the Canadians were. The battle also showed how poor the Ross Rifle was and Canadian soldiers would abandon them for he British rifle whenever they could With the arrival of the second wave in 1915, Canadians were formed into there own corps commanded be a British general with the component divisions being commanded by Canadians. The Canadian Corps began to gain a reputation as skillful trench raiders and eventually as shock troops leading to larger assaults on German lines By 1917, the Canada Corps was tasked with taking the German position at Vimy Ridge that the French were unable to take from the German army. This operation was to be Canadian in conception, planning, and execution. General Arthur Currie took note of previous failures and had his army referees the plan behind the lines. This and other innovations led the operation to be a huge success
Peace From Borden's first war time visit to GB, it was evident that he believed the scale of Canada's commitment entitled her to a share in the determining the direction of the conflict. While this was not immediately evident to the British Authorities, by the time David Lloyd George formed the War Imperial Cabinet, it was fairly clear that the role of the Dominions would have to be redefined The British assumed the dominions needed to be consulted but that they would submit to the British delegation at the Peace Conference. Canada would have none of this, Canada must have a seat at the conference on her own merits and based on their contribution to the allied victoryCanadian delegates sat on committed and decided some aspects of the final treaty. Their position. Could be seen as a mix of British and Us sentiments. Borden refused the notion that Canada might benefit from German territorial concessions. While Borden saw Canada's new position was to act as he middle ground between the US and GB, Woodrow Wilson preferred to deal with the British on matters of Canada. Britain could be counted on to arrive at compromise more quickly, having little direct interest in much of Canada-US relations Article X of the League of Nations treaty providing response to aggressive acts was as much of a concern to Borden as it was to US opponents. He was worried he clause might drag Canada into another European War. Canada also was opposed to any limits on limiting immigration based on race or any other criterion. In the end, Canada signed the Treaty of Versailles separate from the British, and they were admitted to the League of Nations
Latin American Economic conditions prior to the First World War The end of the 19th century saw an incredible integration of the world economy. Goods, people, and capital moved around the world with increasing ease and growing amounts. Technology allowed for uniform system of prices thus trade became more globalized. While this allowed consumers to take advantage of foreign markets and prices, it also exposed them tot he problems of the market. Changes in the price of Canadian beef could also effect the price of Argentine beef and us the life of Argentine ranchers. A catastrophe like World War 1 was bound to have profound effects in this global economy and all it's participants whether they were belligerent or not Latin American countries were certainly a part of this global economy. Large amounts of European capital flowed into the region. Europeans invested heavily in transportation and communication networks. The British and Us had major investments in the telegraph industry throughout Latin America. British and American banks were scattered throughout the region facilitating American capital Latin Americas major role in the global economy was an exporter of commodities. Argentina exported wheat, corn, beef, and wool. Foreign tech and capital fueled the Chilean mine industry. Chile's production of nitrate, it's wheat industry, and it's wool industry were expanding rapidly Brazilian coffee exports to the Us, France, and Germany were vital parts to its economy. The Mexican export economy grew dramatically until 1911 and tended to be more diversified more than other Latin American economies. Ranching, mining, as well as henequen and oil production were important elements in Mexico's export economy Migration was also an important part of the prewar global economy. Europeans were increasingly coming to Latin America especially from Germany. Germany was taking an ever more aggressive approach to Foreign policy with the Kaisers desire for "a place in the sun". Where German people, money, and business went the German army would not be far behind. German officers instructed the Chilean Army. They also had a military presence in Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay, The German gov even had a contingency plan for a war with the US during the period which included Latin America. German interest raised the ire of the US, and it was an important factor in is own ambitions to expand in the region throughout the war. As war clouds gathered, there were signs that the world economy was beginning to change. Much of it had to do with the ascendance of US in international importance and the looming decline of the British.
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