Peacekeeping/Making Review

AlisonH
Mind Map by AlisonH, updated more than 1 year ago
AlisonH
Created by AlisonH almost 7 years ago
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Description

IB IB History Mind Map on Peacekeeping/Making Review, created by AlisonH on 04/17/2014.

Resource summary

Peacekeeping/Making Review
  1. World War 1
    1. 1908, Hello, Kaiser Wilhelm
      1. Building Military/Territorial Threat. Drama.
        1. June 1914 Franz Ferdinand Assasination
          1. Gavrillo Princip/ Black Hand
            1. Local Ethnic Conflicts
            2. A-H issues ultimatum
              1. Serbia Won't comply
                1. AH declares war on serbia
                  1. Russia Mobilizes
                    1. Germany Declares war on Russia
                      1. And then France
                        1. Then March through Belgium
                          1. GB Declares War on Germany
                            1. Germany pushes up into France
                              1. Gets stuck at Marne River Valley
        2. Triple Entente
          1. Germany
            1. Italy*
              1. Helped Allies
              2. Austria-Hungary
                1. Ottoman Empire*
                  1. Whats left, anyway
                2. Triple Alliance.
                  1. Britain
                    1. France
                      1. Russia
                        1. US*
                          1. Joined L8tr
                        2. TECH
                          1. Machine guns, Poisin Gas, Subs, Tanks, Airplanes
                            1. Troop life in trenches Sucked
                          2. Places
                            1. Eastern Front
                              1. Ottoman
                                1. Gallipolli
                                  1. Italy
                                    1. Japan
                                      1. Africa
                                      2. Major Events
                                        1. 1917 Russian Revolution
                                          1. Germans ship them Lenin in a locked Box
                                            1. Bolshevik Revolution
                                          2. German Sub warfare- Sinking of Lusitania
                                            1. Zimmerman Telegraph
                                              1. US Entrance
                                                1. German Stalls brings big victories
                                            2. Wilhelm Abdication
                                            3. PEACE
                                              1. Treaty of Versailles
                                                1. ISSUES
                                                  1. Ethnic group land claims
                                                    1. GB and France's desire for Germany to suffer
                                                      1. Italy wants A-H
                                                        1. Treaty concocted by France, Brits, US
                                                          1. Germany not given any say, or options other than acceptance
                                                            1. Germans lost land, had to pay reparations
                                                              1. Lost land, military limited
                                                            2. US Senate never ratifies it
                                                          2. Wilson's 14 points
                                                            1. Freedom of seas
                                                              1. New Borders
                                                                1. LON
                                                                  1. Allies accept, but US Senate never ratifies treaty, thus US never joined.
                                                            2. Treaties and Players
                                                              1. Powerful Nations at end of war: Objectives
                                                                1. US
                                                                  1. Prez Wilson
                                                                    1. 14 Points
                                                                      1. Self-Determination
                                                                        1. Freedom of Seas
                                                                          1. No Alliances
                                                                            1. No Secret Treaties
                                                                              1. Free Trade
                                                                                1. End of Colonies
                                                                                  1. Prevent future wars
                                                                                    1. "War to end all wars"
                                                                                    2. Safe for democracy
                                                                                2. UK
                                                                                  1. Objectives
                                                                                    1. Elimination of German fleet
                                                                                      1. End of German Empire
                                                                                        1. Get rid of German air power
                                                                                          1. Return to normal trade
                                                                                            1. Reparations
                                                                                              1. $
                                                                                                1. Guilt
                                                                                                2. No New Alliances
                                                                                                  1. No new land for France
                                                                                                  2. Lloyd George
                                                                                                  3. Italy
                                                                                                    1. Vittorio Orlando
                                                                                                      1. Wanted Land Promised by Treaty of London
                                                                                                        1. "You get land if you fight"
                                                                                                          1. Dalmation Coast
                                                                                                            1. South Tyrol
                                                                                                              1. Trisste
                                                                                                              2. Got nothing: Walked out of Versailles
                                                                                                            2. Japan
                                                                                                              1. Objectives
                                                                                                                1. Recognition of power in Asia
                                                                                                                  1. Captured German Islands in the Pacific
                                                                                                                    1. Racial Equality Statement
                                                                                                                  2. France
                                                                                                                    1. SUFFERED LOTS
                                                                                                                      1. George Clemenceau
                                                                                                                        1. Objectives
                                                                                                                          1. Germany to
                                                                                                                            1. Disarm
                                                                                                                              1. Lose Territory
                                                                                                                                1. Major Reparations
                                                                                                                                2. Alsace-Lorraine
                                                                                                                                  1. Rhine Puppet State
                                                                                                                                    1. Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                      1. Belgium
                                                                                                                                        1. Saar Region of W Germany
                                                                                                                                          1. US/UK Alliance
                                                                                                                                      2. Treaties
                                                                                                                                        1. 1919 Versailles
                                                                                                                                          1. With Germany
                                                                                                                                            1. Billions of Gold Marks in Reparations
                                                                                                                                              1. No Airforce!
                                                                                                                                                1. 100,000 Foot soldier limit
                                                                                                                                                  1. Alsace-Lorraine belongs to France now.
                                                                                                                                                    1. No Colonies!
                                                                                                                                                      1. No soldiers in the Rhineland
                                                                                                                                                      2. 1919 T. o. St. Germain
                                                                                                                                                        1. Dissolution of Austrian Empire
                                                                                                                                                          1. No standing Army
                                                                                                                                                            1. Reparations
                                                                                                                                                              1. Blame
                                                                                                                                                              2. No colonies
                                                                                                                                                                1. No international actions wi/out LON approval
                                                                                                                                                              3. 1919-20 Trianon
                                                                                                                                                                1. Hungary and remains of A-H
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Hungary lost 72% of its land
                                                                                                                                                                    1. 64% inhabitants lost
                                                                                                                                                                      1. 31% of ethnic Hungarians
                                                                                                                                                                        1. 1/2 of top ten most populous cities
                                                                                                                                                                          1. # socio-politi-economic crises
                                                                                                                                                                        2. 1919-20 Neuilly
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Bulgaria
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Reparations, land, blame, limit army, etc
                                                                                                                                                                              1. "2nd National Catastrophe"
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Pushes them into Nazi Arms
                                                                                                                                                                                2. 1923 Sevres
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Former Ottoman Empire
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Kingdom of Hejaz recognized.
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Armenia becomes a state
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Allies took control of Ottoman finances
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Navy and army limited. Airforce banned.
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. France gets Syria, parts of Anatolia, other territories.
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Italy gets Dodecanese islands
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. 1923 Laussane
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Follow Up to failed Sevres Treaty
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Nationalist revolts in Anatolia
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Stop Allies/Nationalists conflict
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. All borders of modern Turkey but the one with Iraq
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Turks relinquish Scraps of Ottoman
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Turkish Sovereignity
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Geopolitical/Economic Impact
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. WEST
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. ALL THE NEW BORDERS!
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. LON Drew borders for economic reasons, splitting up ethnicities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Polish Corridor splits Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Fueled anti-polish and anti-TOV conflicts
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Little Entente (1921)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Fears of Bulgaria
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Irridentism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Desire to recover former territory
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Czechloslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. French support b/cuz Russo-German threat
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Isolationsim
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. "return to normalcy"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. ALL THE MONIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Creditor Nation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Dawes Act
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Wilson & Article X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Didn't sign anglo-american Guarantee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Massive European Debt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. German INflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. RUSSIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Soviet Revisionism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Bolshevik Revolution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Treaty of Rapallo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Undermines Versailles, restoring Russian and German Strength
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Aims at revising territory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. MIDDLE EAST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Hussein-McMahon Letters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Brits willing to recognize arab independence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Sykes-Picot Agreement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 1916 UK/FR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Split Middle east into Zones of Influence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Syria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Iraq
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Egypt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Super Important British Mandate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Suez Canal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Participation in ww1 creates tons of problems.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Food Shortages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Inflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Denied Participation in TOV discussion of arab states
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. UPRISING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Get independence, Lose control of canal to Brits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Eventual issues with power abuses.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. The Jews
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Early moves to protect themselves from anti-semetic actions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Including Russia, Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Zionist Movement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Jewish Homeland in Israel.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Wave of immigrants to Palestine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Rising tensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Allies withdrew promises to save face
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Jewish mistrust of Brits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Buildup of Zionist defenses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. British Support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. LON makes Palestine a mandate of GB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. "Hey, wait a minute. You never said anything about this when you needed our help in that war."
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. LON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. ISSUES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Lacked superpower support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Stronger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Monies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Soviet Union
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Conspiracy Theories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Excluded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Required to follow the rules
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Supporter Divisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. France: Suppress German Military Agression
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Brits: Concilliatory methods to ease tensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Lack of Support due to Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Depression.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Nobody had any money to spend to help each other out.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. End of idealism.Pessimism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Manchuria & Abyssinia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Helped Hitler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. The goal: to resolve disputes with nations in order to preserve peace
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Success
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Aaland Islands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Upper Silesia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Greco-Bulgarian War
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. The antagonists were small and unwilling or incapable of much damage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Failure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Greco-Turkish War
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. LAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Allies promise Greece a chunk of Anatolia for a recreation of the Byzantine Empire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Mustapha Kemal/ Turks drive them out.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Renegotiate treaty with Brits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Soviets start helping the out with supplies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Greeks hold ground, seek out LON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. France and GB drop support, leaving them in a bad way.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Turkey Wins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. France and GB are flaky
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Corfu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. An Italian General and 3 others were murdered in Corfu (Greek)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Italy: "Retribution!"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Greece: "Naah"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Italy: "Suck on this INVASION!"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Good place for trade, too
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Greece: "LON, they took my stuff!"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. LON: "Italy GTFO"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Italy: Nope.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Italy: On Second thought, this place is lame. Give us $$$ and we'll leave.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Seizure of Flume
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Vilna
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Russo-Polish War
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Major powers refuse to comply with the LON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. RUHR Crisis/Locarno Springs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. RUHR CRISIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Anglo-American Guarantee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. US/UK agree to help France out in the event of outside agression
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Brits Back out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Disagreement over German Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. French want to destroy it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Brits want to rebuild it to foster trade.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. The Germans missed a reperations timber delivery.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. France and Belgium invade and take the region.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Brits were against these actions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. The French wanted to collect the missing payments by taking goods from mines and factories and shipping them to France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. German workers didn't respond well.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Destroyed goods, mines, factories in protest.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Violent conflict
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Inflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. This was pretty bad, and then the Weimar govt. that was in place made it worse by printing more money.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. LOCARNO SPRINGS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Ruhr Crisis led to new German Chancellor Gustav Stresmann
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Denounces violence in Ruhr, announces that Germany would follow TOV.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. And also accept current French/Belgian borders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 1925 Locarno Treaty.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Belgium, France, the UK, and Germany meet and Germany promises to accept TOV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. They'd take the borders they were given, and in exchange, get on the LON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Step toward reconcilliation, German economic recovery,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. FR/GB can now chill out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. sense of excitement and optimism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Peace?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Issues it left unresolved
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Germany had not agreed to an Eastern border
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. USSR/ Rapallo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Britain refused to guarantee the countries to the east of Germany. This led Germany to believe that it could change its Eastern borders with little objection from the allies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Allied troops left the bank of the Rhine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. The Supervision of Germanys disarmament stopped in 1927
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 1930, Germany basically independent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. even though the Locarno Treaty had been successful in bringing about peace, the League of Nations was not strengthened and the collective security remained uncertain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. Manchuria/Abyssinia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Manchuria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Japan has become an industrial power.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Economy depended on exports, esp. to US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. US passes protectionist measures during the depression, hurting Japan.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Massive unemployment, starvation, and growth of radical groups.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Needed natural resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. China was weak with civil war.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Manchuria semi independent state with own warlord.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Had lots of natural resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Japan invades in 1932
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. No Chinese or Western intervention.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. "Manchuko"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. China pleads LON for help
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. But only LON member who could do something was 5K miles away.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. UK had no interest in Manchuria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Domestic probs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. LON had given Japan complete control over most naval bases out in the Pacific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Lytton Commission Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Japan used too much force, but they left the situation alone, giving Japan Manchukuo as a puppet state
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Japan leaves LON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Abysinnia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Important because
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Led to Hitler's rise to power
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Collapse of Geneva disarmament talks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. German rearmament plans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. german withdrawal from LON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Up and coming nation til Hitler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Had defended TOV when Hitler invaded Austria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. South Tyrol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Stresa Front
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 1935 agreement (Brits, France, Italy)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. uphold the Locarno Pact and Independence in Austria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Targeted because
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. expanded ITL colonial holdings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. New Roman Empire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Logical land pick
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Only bit of Africa left for grabs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. oil deposits and a pool of potential army recruits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Began as border conflict with Italian somaliland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Got to LON in 1945
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Response
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 51 nations impose sanctions on Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Didn't include oil, BB keeps selling it to them
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Hoarse-Laval Pact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. plan was devised by the French and British foreign minister to settle the Abyssinian crisis and avoid losing Italy as an ally against Hitler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. plan failed due to the lack of public support, mussolini's refusal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Abyssinia fell to Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Hitler reoccupied the Rhineland, realizing reluctance of FR and GB to intervene.
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