Cell structure

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Biology Flashcards on Cell structure, created by paigexmonks on 05/19/2013.
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Flashcards by paigexmonks, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by paigexmonks about 11 years ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
what has eukaryotic cells? plants, animals, fungi, protoctists
what has prokaryotic cells? bacteria, cyanobacteria
what is the difference between unicellular and multicellular? unicellular-organisms consist of one cell multicellular-organisms consist of many different cells
what is the word that states that multicellular organisms cells all have different functions? specialised
what does a eukaryotic cell contain? nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondrion, R/SER, goligi body, ribosomes, lysosomes, centrioles and vacuole
what does a nucleus contain? outer membrane, inner membrane, pore in nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin, nucleolus and dna as chromosomes
functions of the nucleus? - nuclear envelope controls entry and exit of maerials - control centre of cell through mRNA production -retains genetic material -manufacture RNA and ribosomes
what does the mitochondrion contain? outer membrane, inner membrane, folds of cristae and matrix
what is the function of the mitochondrion? site for aerobic respiration through ATP synthesis
what does the endoplasmic reticulum contain? nucleus with nuclear envelope, cisternae with ribosomes on rough endoplasmic reticulum but none on smooth endoplasmic reticulum
what is the role of the smooth er? lipid synthesis and transport
what is the function of rough er? protein synthesis and transport
what is the structure of Golgi body? folds called cisternae like sacs, vesicle from ER enter which contain proteins, lysosomes exit with enzymes inside
what is the function of Golgi body? modifying and labelling eg adds carbs to proteins to produce glycoproteins produce enzymes transport, modify store lipids form lysosomes
what is the structure of ribosomes? made up of protein and rRNA. 1 large and 1 small sub unit
what is the function of ribosomes? protein synthesis
what is the structure of lysosomes? just little circles
what is the function of lysosomes? contain digestive enzymes responsible for destroying worn out organelles and digesting the contents of vacuoles fromed by phagocytosis
what is the structure of centrioles? spindle shaped short cylinders made of 9 fibres
what is the function of centrioles? make protein fibres to aid cell dividsion by helping to move chromosomes
what is the structure of a chloroplast? outer membrane, inner membrane, stoma, itergranal lamellae, thylakoids, many making up a granum
what is the function of chloroplasts? found in plants, site of photosynthesis
what is the strcuure of a vacuole? cell wall, cell membrane, tonoplast, vacuole
what is the function of vacuole? storage site for materials such as cell sap and helps support young plants
chloroplast - p or a? plants
cell wall p or a? plants
vacuole p or a? single large in plant, many small in animal
centrioles p or a? animals
plasmodemata p or a? plants
what is a plasmodesmata? channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells by connecting strands
when our cells become specialosed is known as... differentation
1 example of specialised cell and function red blood cells carry oxygen in the blood
2nd example of specialied cell and fucntion white blood cells to fight off infection
3rd example of specialised cella dn function skin cells act as barrier
what is a tissue? a group of similar cells performing one particular function
what is lots of different types of tissue make up? an organ
what does lots of organs working together make? and organ system
what do prokaryotic cells not have? membrane bound organelles or a membrane bound nucleus
what is the dna like on prokaryotic cells? single stranded not held in the nucleus
what does a prokaryotic cell contain? mesosomes, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, plasmid, dna strand, slime capsule, ribosomes, starch grains and flagellum
difference between eukaryotic ribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes eukaryotic has large - 80s prokaryotic has small - 70s
difference in dna in eukaryotic and prokaryotic eukaryotic - held in the nucleus and is double stranded prokaryotic - not held in nucleus and is single stranded
difference in cell wall in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells eukaryotic - cell wall made of murein prokaryotic - cell wall made of cellulose (plants)
what is used to see viruses? electronmicroscope
why are viruses called non-cells? no cytoplasm , no organelles and no chromosomes
what do viruses consist of? DNA sheath, capsid tails and nucleic acid
where do viruses multiply? host cells
why is inner membrane (cristae) in mitochondria folded? to increase SA for the proteins involved in the genereation of ATP to maximise respiration
why does muscle cells require more mitochondria than skin cells? they require more energy to contract than skin cells
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