ingles ESCRITA 3 Mind Map on FUNCTION WORDS, created by Fede Jaime on 29/03/2014.
Fede Jaime
Mind Map by Fede Jaime, updated more than 1 year ago
Fede Jaime
Created by Fede Jaime almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

    1. normally precede nouns, and are used to help clarify the meaning of the noun
      1. definite article
        1. indicates that the referent is know by the speaker and the adressee
        2. indefinite article
          1. makes clear that the referent is one member of a class
          2. demonstrative
            1. indicate that the referents are 'near to' or 'away from' the speaker's immediate context (this/that/these/those)
            2. possesive
              1. tell us who or what the noun belongs to (my/his/her, etc)
              2. quantifiers
                1. specify how many or how much of the noun there is (every, some, any, etc)
              3. PRONOUNS
                1. fill the position of a noun or a whole noun phrase
                  1. personal
                    1. refer to the speaker, the addressee(s), and other entities
                      1. are used far more frequently than the other classes of pronouns.
                      2. demonstrative
                        1. refer to entities which are 'near to' v. 'away from' the speaker's contex
                        2. reflexive
                          1. refer back to a previous noun phrase, usually the subject of the clause: myself, herself, etc
                          2. reciprocal
                            1. refer to a previous noun phrase, but indicate that there is a mutual relationship
                            2. possesive
                              1. are closely related to possessive determiners and usually imply a missing noun head: mine, yours, etc
                              2. indefinite
                                1. compound words consisting of quantifier + general noun (everything, nobody, someone, etc.
                                  1. consist of a quantifier alone (all, some, many, etc.)
                                  2. relative
                                    1. (who, whom, which, that) introduce a relative clause
                                    2. interrogative
                                      1. ask questions about unknown entities
                                    3. AUXILIARY VERBS
                                      1. They are added to a main verb to help build verb phrases, precede the main or lexical verb in a verb phrase
                                        1. primary
                                          1. They have inflections like lexical verbs, but are normally unstressed
                                            1. be
                                              1. progressive aspect
                                                1. passive voice
                                                2. have
                                                  1. perfect aspect
                                                  2. do
                                                    1. negative statements and in questions
                                                  3. modals
                                                    1. express 'modality', such as possibility, necessity, prediction, and volition
                                                      1. will can shall may must would could should might
                                                    2. PREPOSITIONS
                                                      1. linking words that introduce prepositional phrases
                                                        1. single word: on, for, with, etc
                                                          1. complex
                                                            1. have a meaning that cannot be derived from the meaning of the parts. Two-word complex prepositions normally end with a simple preposition: such as, apart from, etc
                                                          2. ADVERBIAL PARTICLES
                                                            1. small group of words with a core meaning of motion
                                                              1. about, across, along, around, aside, away, back, by, down, forth, home, in, off; on, out, over, past, round, through, under, up.
                                                                1. follow verbs, and are closely bound to them in meaning, they are used to build phrasal verbs
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