Cardiovascular disease

hannah.lindridge
Mind Map by hannah.lindridge, updated more than 1 year ago
hannah.lindridge
Created by hannah.lindridge almost 7 years ago
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A-Levels Biology (Circularatory system) Mind Map on Cardiovascular disease, created by hannah.lindridge on 05/20/2013.
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Cardiovascular disease
1 Most start with Artheroma formation
1.1 Wall of artery made up of several layers
1.1.1 Endothelium (inner lining) usually smooth and unbroken
1.1.1.1 Damage occurs to endothelium e.g by ^bp, white blood cells and lipids from blood clump together under lining to form fatty streaks
1.1.1.1.1 Over time more WBCs, lipids and connective tissue build up & harden to form fibrous plaque called an artheroma
1.1.1.1.1.1 This plaque partially blocks lumen of artery and restricts blood flow causing ^bp
1.2 Increase risk of Aneurysm and Thrombosis
1.2.1 Balloon-like swelling of artery
1.2.1.1 Artheroma plaques damage/weaken arteries. Also narrows them ^bp
1.2.1.1.1 When blood travels through weakened artery at ^bp it may push inner layers through outer elastic layer to form aneurysm
1.2.1.1.1.1 Aneurysm may burst to cause haemorrhage (bleeding)
1.2.2 Formation of blood clot
1.2.2.1 Artheroma plaque can rupture endothelium
1.2.2.1.1 Damages wall leaving rough surface
1.2.2.1.1.1 Platelets & fibrin (a protein) accumulate at site of damage to form blood clot (thrombus)
1.2.2.1.1.1.1 Clot can cause complete blockage of artery or can become dislodged & block blood vessel elsewhere in body
1.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Debris from rupture can cause another blood clot further down artery
2 Interrupted blood flow to heart can cause a Myocardial Infarction
2.1 Heart muscle supplied with blood by coronary arteries- contains oxygen needed by <3 to respire
2.1.1 If C.A becomes completely blocked (e.g blood clot) area of <3 totally cut off from blood supply- receives no oxygen
2.1.1.1 Causes Myocardial Infarction (heart attack)
2.1.1.1.1 Can cause damage/death to <3 muscle
2.1.1.1.1.1 Symptoms- pain in chest/upper body, shortness of breath, sweating
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 If large areas of <3 affected complete <3 failiure can occur (often fatal)
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