Threats to computers and the data they hold

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

GCSE Data Security Mind Map on Threats to computers and the data they hold, created by alison.collins on 05/21/2013.

Created by alison.collins over 6 years ago
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Threats to computers and the data they hold
1 Hackers
1.1 Unless protected, anyone could potentially gain access to a computer system to edit, copy or delete computer files. Unauthorised users are sometimes called hackers.
2 Malware
2.1 Malware is the term for any computer program installed either deliberately or accidentally on a computer with the intention of causing harm. The most common types of malware are
2.1.1 Viruses: these are programs designed to disrupt the workings of a computer. They are called viruses because they are designed to be spread from one infected machine to another. Viruses can be downloaded from websites or installed by opening a file attatched to a SPAM email.
2.1.2 Spyware: this is software designed to monitor the ways the computer is used and then report this back to someone. One example is keystroke software - this could be used to record someone's password being typed into a bank website.
2.1.3 Adware: this is software designed to monitor your internet use and then display adverts based on your web-browsing habits. Some software producers include adware in their programs as a way of getting back some of the costs of developing their products. Many people believe that adware is an invasion of privacy.
2.1.4 Phising: this is when you recieve an email pretending to be from your bank or other business, requestiong that you visit their website and re-enter your password or other personal information. In reality, the website is a fake and the owner will use the data they collect from you to hack into your real bank account to withdraw money. Phishing emails are examples of SPAM.
3.1 The email equivalent of junk mail
3.1.1 The sender will often send the same message to thousands of random email addresses They are hoping that just a few people will respond
3.2 SPAM emails often contain fake offers to buy something
3.3 It is a very common way to send viruses
4 User precautions against unauthorised files
4.1 Users should be very careful when using the internet and email. In particular:
4.1.1 NEVER open an email attatchment unless you are certain what the file contains. This especially includes emails recieved from people you do not know (SPAM messages)
4.1.2 Be very careful when visiting websites Always be on the look out for potential problems
4.1.3 NEVER give out your personal data to sources unless you can definitely trust them Just because a hyperlink in an email message says it will direct you to your bank, it doesn't mean that is where you are being taken
4.1.4 ALWAYS make sure that computer security software is kept up to date and switched on
4.1.5 Never leave your computer unattended whilst you are logged on Anyone can then use it to gain access to your files and other parts of the system One solution is to 'lock' the screen so that it can only be unlocked by entering your password
4.1.6 When shopping on the internet, always make sure that the website you are using to enter your payment details is encrypted

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