1 Richard Holloway - 'Human sexuality is
like a runaway car' - it can be destructive
or creative, but we are never quite in
control of it.
2 Greek philosophers saw sex as something weakening to the mind.
The Pythagoreans (Influenced Plato) believed humans should
refrain from sex. Analogy of the chariot from Plato. Body is like a
'prison' that shouldn't be indulged. The Cynics - no point in
controlling pleasure, no shame in sexual act, even going as far as
performing it in public. Stoics - sex is linked only to reproduction
and continuation of the human race. For the Greeks sexuality is
naturally excessive, so problem is how to control it = self discipline.
3 Old Testament - Includes love stories (RUTH AND BOAZ) and
accounts of incest (Lot and his daughters) In Song of Songs, sex is
celebrated - but with a strong link to love also.
3.1 Song of Songs 4 'Your breasts are like
two fawns, like twin fawns of a gazelle
that browse among the lilies.'
3.2 Gen 1 and 2 there's an understand
God created sex for procreation
but its seen as good not wrong.
4 New Testament - Jesus - said little about sex and gave very few rules. He said
'whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her' - could be
a suggested that Jesus was trying to protect women from being cast out and away as
they were viewed as property at the time. Paul - says very little of sex and relationships
and attempted to move towards ideas of the soul - sexual activity should be kept in
marriage. 'Wives, be subject to your husbands as you are to the Lord' - sexist views.
5 Augustine - lived among Gnostics who
emphasised dulaism. Central to this was a
dislike of body and pessimism about
sexuality. Sex is a necessary evil for
procreation. Adam and Eve made for
procreation but don't until after they eat fruit.
Blames it on the Fall. Chastity was the ideal,
but sex is necessary.
6 Aquinas - based thinking on
Natural Law. Primary
precepts. Sex can be morally
wrong in two ways - when
procreation is blocked, and
when sex disrespects another
7 Kant - A husband who commits adultery cannot
want extra marital sex to be universal unless he
wants wife and children to do the same. Neither
can homosexuality. Categorical imperative doesn't
allow people to be treated as a means to an end
so sexual acts are wrong as they involve using
someone for your own pleasure. Doesn't see sex
within marriage as wrong.
8 Utilitarianism - Bentham - 'greatest happiness
for greatest number' HARM PRINCIPLE - have
to consider any harm involved, i.e. STI's,
unwanted pregnancy etc.
9 Virtue Ethics - virtues such as commitment,
honesty, loyalty, friendship, pleasure, love etc -
if in accordance with these virtues then
10 Freud - said each person's approach to sex and relationships is based
on their upbringing, and relationship with parents. Sexual personality
may be found at the core of the moral personality: how we behave
towards sexual partners influences how we interact with people in
general. The failure to learn to control sexual pleasures undermines the
achievement of a virtuous character.
11 Homosexuality - Literalist view
'Man shall not lay with man, God
hates that.' Liberal view - quality of
the relationship that matters.
Natural Law - does not produce
children ~ 'Gay gene' question, Two
Greek words trad. translated as
homosexual may mean 'loose
loving' or 'prostitute' so in revised
version of Bible the word
homosexual has been removed
from Paul's letters. People pick and
choose to reinforce prejudices i.e.
prohibiting men from shaving,
women who are not virgins at
marriage shall be stoned etc.
Catholic church - being a
homosexual is fine but putting into
practice is wrong.
12 Contraception - Catholics - against because it prevents
God's plan, main purpose of marriage was
procreationand bringing up children. Pope Paul VI
reinforced this but allowed 'rhythm method'
contradiction? In 97' Vatican Council for the Family said
contraception was an intrinsic evil as it stops
procreation and harms true love between couple and
takes God away from his role in the transmission of
human life. 2006 Pope Benedict XVI ordered condoms
to be allowed to prevent AID's.