Factors Causing Independence

Tom Lea
Mind Map by Tom Lea, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
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GCSE and A-Levels Unit 2 India Mind Map on Factors Causing Independence, created by Tom Lea on 05/22/2013.
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Factors Causing Independence
1 Pressure from US
1.1 US wanted Brits to end empire- always been anti-empire
1.1.1 Wilsons 14 points 1919 - principle of national self determination
1.1.1.1 1941 Atlantic Charter - Agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill to support principle of self govt
1.1.1.1.1 1942 Cripps Mission - One of key reasons is to please US
1.1.1.1.1.1 Influence of US increased by massive war loans given to Britain
2 Nationalist Campaigns (Congress and Gandhi)
2.1 Very successful and widespread
2.1.1 Puts British in bad light - Salt March 1930
2.1.1.1 Quit India Campaign 1942 - Creates demand for independence
2.1.1.1.1 Non Coop Movements 1919-1922
2.1.1.1.1.1 Civil Disobediene 1930-1934
3 Communal Violence/Fear of Unrest
3.1 Repeated accounts of communal violence throughout entire time period
3.1.1 Moplah Rebellion 1921
3.1.2 Calcutta Killings 1946
3.2 British would not be able to deal with civil war - can no longer rely on army after Bombay mutinies - Key reason
3.2.1 Congress ends mutiny - shows shift of power
4 Labour Govt
4.1 Wanted to give Indian's independence
4.1.1 Left wing wanted to help the people
4.1.1.1 Nehru and Mountbatten very close
4.1.1.1.1 Mountbatten tries to please Nehru as much as possible
4.2 Churchill removed
4.2.1 wouldn't have granted independence as quick
5 WWII
5.1 Cripples British finances
5.1.1 Resources/wages
5.1.2 US debt
5.2 INA - Shows Indian's prepared to use violence
5.2.1 INA POWs also show Indian potential to cause unrest
5.3 Indian Soldiers wanted a reward
5.4 Quit India 1942 - British response
5.4.1 British have no moral high ground - Indians want them out
6 British Policy (Brutality/Ignorance
6.1 Divide + Rule - turned people on eachother - increases chance of civil war
6.1.1 Partition of Bengal/1909 reforms are examples
6.2 Declaration of WWII
6.2.1 Annoyed everyone - had enough
6.3 Amritsar massacre
6.3.1 extreme violence
6.3.1.1 Possible turning point in Indian opinion
6.4 Crushing of Quit India 1942
6.4.1 Again extreme violence
6.5 Never were able to negotiate successfully with Indians
6.5.1 Roundtable confs
6.5.1.1 Simla confs
7 Economy
7.1 Empire costing 1 billion a year - prewar
7.2 English finances ruined by WWII
7.3 No longer have the money to spend on looking after India
7.4 Whole point of empire was to make money not to lose it
7.5 Empire costing 1.4 billion by end of war
7.6 Economy already going downhill
7.6.1 Indian imports of british decreased by approx 45 million 1929-1936
7.7 1931 reserve bank of India established
7.7.1 Rupee no longer tied to pound - British trade less profitable
7.8 British reduced investment in India
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