Post War 1945-1947

Tom Lea
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

GCSE and A-Levels Unit 2 India Mind Map on Post War 1945-1947, created by Tom Lea on 05/08/2013.

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Tom Lea
Created by Tom Lea over 6 years ago
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Post War 1945-1947
1 Impact of War
1.1 Economy
1.1.1 Can no long afford empire

Annotations:

  • Keynes estimated running of Empire to cost be £1.4 billion
1.1.2 wartime debts to be paid

Annotations:

  • USA funded UK during warIndia had footed the bill for wages for Indian soldiers £50 million/year Overall debt to India £1.3 billion
1.1.3 reconstruction cost

Annotations:

  • British cities destroyed in Blitz
1.1.4 Downward trend in revenue from India exacerbated by war
1.2 fear unrest
1.2.1 Bombay mutinies 1946

Annotations:

  • 20,000 soldiers mutiny Congress stop muitny - shows their power Demonstrates to Britian that the Army cannot be trusted - never used again
1.2.2 proliferation of weapons after WWII

Annotations:

  • Soldiers didn't hand back weapons when demobbed
1.2.3 Morale in army very low - everone wants to just go home!
1.2.4 nationalist campaigns during war
1.2.4.1 INA

Annotations:

  • First serious armed uprising since Great Rebellion Issue of PoWs - causes anti-British feeling
1.2.4.2 Congress

Annotations:

  • Quit India  Movement - turned violent Fear of renewed call for Civil dosobedience
1.3 fear of civil war
1.3.1 1940 Muslim League demand seperate state
1.3.2 Muslim League took positions from resigned Congress ministers - increased tensions
1.4 change of British attitude
1.4.1 1945 elections - Atlee PM

Annotations:

  • Socialist - wants social reforms in Britain Wants reform in India too. Needs money - KEY FACTOR - NHS
1.4.2 Churchill voted out
2 Cabinet Mission
2.1 Offers

Annotations:

  • choice between: Federal System - minimal input from the national govt - majority of power to rest with the provinical/state govts. After an unspecified time states could choose to break away (secede) OR  Seperate states
2.1.1 Britain hope to make the first offer a compromise both sides could accept
2.1.1.1 Rejected by both ML and Congress
2.2 May Statement

Annotations:

  • Rejected by Congress but accepted by ML Reinterpreted by Congress - British allow this ML reject - DAD
2.2.1 States first option will be used as basis for indpendence despite no agreement
2.3 Key People
2.3.1 Sir Stafford Cripps

Annotations:

  • Determined to succeed having failed in 1942 Very close to Gandhi and Congress - led to antagonism between groups.
2.3.2 Pethick Lawrence

Annotations:

  • a 'yes' man - nickname 'pathetic Lawrence'.  Tried to say yes to everything.  Rubbish negotiator.
3 Direct Action Day
3.1 Caused by failure of Cab Miss
3.2 National Hartal - Peaceful mass movement
3.2.1 Jinnah wants to show power of ML
3.2.2 Everywhere except Calcutta the movement is peaceful
3.3 Calcutta Killings

Annotations:

  • 6,000 dead 20,000 wounded 100,000 homeless
3.3.1 hartal quickly descends into violence
3.3.1.1 Violence spreads across the North of India - rioting and disruption continue until independence
3.3.2 Hindus, Mulsims, British all bear some responsibility
3.3.3 Majority of worst violence caused by gang warfare - movement hijacked by criminal underworld
3.3.4 Seen (by some) as point of no return for united India
3.3.5 Damages Jinnah's reputation
4 Mountbatten
4.1 Close relationship with Nehru

Annotations:

  • Leads to friction with ML and JInnah in particular
4.1.1 Simla Moment

Annotations:

  • Mountbatten shows Nehru his plans for independence - changes them when Nehru doesn't like them.
4.2 Very bad relationship with Jinnah
4.3 Given job largely due to royal connections

Annotations:

  • Atlee wants to cover the end of empire with a little royal glamour
4.4 Plan Balkan

Annotations:

  • Rubbish Plan - would never be accepted by Congress - could potentially have led to the complete break up of the sub continent   see Simla moment
4.5 Menon Plan

Annotations:

  • Drafted in 3hrs - had to be checked by Nehru! based on May Statement gave very little time to carry out partition planning
4.5.1 2 state solution
4.5.2 Possible after Congress decided to accept partition in March 1947
5 Interim Govt

Annotations:

  • Viceroy/Governor Gen of Exce Council - Wavell Nehru - Vice President (in control of foreign affairs) Patel - Home Affairs (security/law/secret services etc) Ali Khan - Muslim rep on Exec Council Jinnah - finance minister
5.1 Stepping stone to independent govt.
5.2 Seen by Patrick French as more significant than independence
5.3 Splits when partition is decided upon
6 Independence/partition
6.1 14/15th August 1947
6.2 Huge amounts of migration and violence approx 1million dead

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