Functionalist theories of crime and deviance

alice_tripp
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Functionalist theories of crime and deviance, created by alice_tripp on 07/01/2014.

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alice_tripp
Created by alice_tripp over 5 years ago
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Functionalist theories of crime and deviance
1 EMILE DURKHEIM
1.1 Durkheim believed that society was essentially consensual and that most people conform, or aspire to similar values and ways of behaving.
1.2 Durkheim also believed the a certain amount of crime and deviance is not only normal but also an integral part of all societies. He called this 'Society of Saints'.
1.3 IS CRIME AND DEVIANCE GOOD FOR SOCIETY?
1.3.1 Durkheim believed in collective sentiments: These collective sentiments are shared values and morals. Durkheim suggests that if they are too strong, there won't be any change. However, if they are too weak, crime becomes harmful to society. Therefore, Durkheim suggests the ideal is that they have moderate energy.
1.4 Durkheim suggests that society shares a set of core values and calls this 'Collective Conscience'.
2 DEFINITION: In society, what counts as normality and what counts as deviance is the result of shared values and norms.
2.1 NOTE: A deviant is someone who breaks these shared values.
3 ROBERT MERTON
3.1 Merton believed that all members of society share the same values and goals. Merton calls this 'Value Consensus'.
3.2 However, the problem is that not everyone has the same opportunity to realise these values and goals. Therefore, more attention is given to success rather than the means of achieving it.
3.2.1 "STRAIN TO ANOMIE"- this is where the goals or the means of achieving them are rejected.
3.3 Merton's 5 responses to the American Dream
3.3.1 CONFORMITY; they strive for success in conventional ways and are not deviant.
3.3.2 INNOVATORS; they develop new ways of achieving success. They are likely to be working class. They desire goals of society however can't achieve educational success. They turn to crime to become wealthy.
3.3.3 RITUALISM; they are the lower- middle class people and have been socialised into the means of society but they can't achieve success. Consequently, they give up on goals of success and this makes them deviant. They stick to the rules, but aren't committed to the dream.
3.3.4 REBELLION; these individuals will seek to replace the existing goals of society with new ones. They are truly deviant.
3.3.5 RETREATISM; some may accept both goals and means but can't achieve success. They may become mad, drop out, become homeless and/or withdraw from society.

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