1.1 Durkheim believed that society was
essentially consensual and that most
people conform, or aspire to similar
values and ways of behaving.
1.2 Durkheim also believed
the a certain amount of
crime and deviance is
not only normal but also
an integral part of all
societies. He called this
'Society of Saints'.
1.3 IS CRIME AND
DEVIANCE GOOD FOR
1.3.1 Durkheim believed in collective sentiments:
These collective sentiments are shared
values and morals. Durkheim suggests that if
they are too strong, there won't be any
change. However, if they are too weak, crime
becomes harmful to society. Therefore,
Durkheim suggests the ideal is that they have
1.4 Durkheim suggests that
society shares a set of core
values and calls this
2 DEFINITION: In society, what
counts as normality and what
counts as deviance is the result
of shared values and norms.
2.1 NOTE: A deviant
is someone who
3 ROBERT MERTON
3.1 Merton believed that all members
of society share the same values
and goals. Merton calls this 'Value
3.2 However, the problem is that not
everyone has the same
opportunity to realise these values
and goals. Therefore, more
attention is given to success rather
than the means of achieving it.
3.2.1 "STRAIN TO ANOMIE"- this is where
the goals or the means of achieving
them are rejected.
3.3 Merton's 5 responses to the
3.3.1 CONFORMITY; they strive for
success in conventional ways
and are not deviant.
3.3.2 INNOVATORS; they develop new
ways of achieving success. They
are likely to be working class.
They desire goals of society
however can't achieve
educational success. They turn to
crime to become wealthy.
3.3.3 RITUALISM; they are the lower-
middle class people and have been
socialised into the means of society
but they can't achieve success.
Consequently, they give up on goals
of success and this makes them
deviant. They stick to the rules, but
aren't committed to the dream.
3.3.4 REBELLION; these individuals
will seek to replace the existing
goals of society with new ones.
They are truly deviant.
3.3.5 RETREATISM; some may accept both
goals and means but can't achieve
success. They may become mad, drop
out, become homeless and/or withdraw