Topic 2 - data and information

rebeccalloyd1994
Mind Map by rebeccalloyd1994, updated more than 1 year ago
rebeccalloyd1994
Created by rebeccalloyd1994 almost 7 years ago
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A-Levels ICT (ICT) Mind Map on Topic 2 - data and information, created by rebeccalloyd1994 on 05/23/2013.
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Topic 2 - data and information
1 types of data
1.1 Currency (£, $)
1.2 sound
1.3 Image
1.4 date/time
1.5 Integers
1.5.1 Whole numbers
1.6 Real
1.6.1 includes decimals, provides more accuracy than integers
1.7 String
1.8 Boolean
1.8.1 Selecting 1 of 2 options e.g. yes/no, male/female
2 what is data?
2.1 Details that are meaningless because they lack relevance I.e. numbers, words, images, sounds
3 Encoding - transferring data into a format that can be read and understood by a computer. Once encoded it can be processed and manipulated by various software
4 Coding - Abbrieviating data e.g. Y/N. Validation within a system can be set up to ensure that the data entered is sensible, possible and realistic.
4.1 Advantages
4.1.1 Saves space, takes less time to type in, more data can appear at once, easier to check mistakes and hides sensitive data
4.2 Disadvantages
4.2.1 Data loses meaning, quantifies the qualitative, conversion errors and precision reduced
5 What is the difference between data and information?
5.1 Data is raw values put into, stored and processed by a system whereas information is the result of the 'processed data, with added meaning
6 Quality of information
6.1 Accurate
6.2 Easy to understand
6.3 Relevant
6.4 Up-to-date
6.5 timeliness of information
7 How can data arise?
7.1 Experiments
7.2 Transactions (EPOS)
7.3 Automatic measurement of environmental quantities
7.4 Surveys (On-line)
7.5 Exam results (OMR)
7.6 Interviews (manual collection)
7.7 Management information system
8 Data
8.1 Direct data - collected for specific purpose e.g. library barcode's to track customers taking books out
8.2 Indirect data - used to create information that isn't related to the original purpose of the data collection e.g. demographics from what customers are buying more often
8.3 Static data - produced and distributed in a state that is not likely to change e.g. read only media - CD- roms. It can quickly become out of date if it deals with current affairs- best used for presenting fats e.g. D.O.B
8.4 Dynamic data - subject to change e.g. news. Businesses rely on it as it endorses a component as being up-to-date. Internet has made access to dynamic data easier
9 How does good quality information add value to an organisation?
9.1 it helps with decision making e.g. reports, graphs
9.2 Monitor and control
9.3 Target resources - demographics
9.4 Competitive advantage
10 What costs are incurred to get good quality information?
10.1 Manpower, data entry, hardware and software, data maintenance
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