Health and diseases

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biology (F212) Mind Map on Health and diseases, created by Nikita96 on 05/28/2013.

Created by Nikita96 over 6 years ago
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Health and diseases
1 Infectious diseases
1.1 Can be caused by different things
1.1.1 Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being, which includes the absence of disease and infirmary. Disease is a condition that impairs the normal functioning or an organism
1.1.2 A pathogen is an organism that can cause damage to the organism it infects (the host) A parasite is an organism that lives on or in another organism and causes damage to that organism
1.2 Malaria
1.2.1 Malaria is caused by the parasite Plasmodium. The Female Anopheles mosquito transmits the disease. They are vectors, they don't cause the disease but they spread it. The plasmodium affects the liver and the RBC.
1.3 AIDS
1.3.1 It is caused by the HIV virus. Infects human white blood cells. HIV reproduces inside cells . AIDS is where the immune system deteriorates and fails due to the loss of white blood cells.
1.4 TB
1.4.1 Caused by a bacterium. Transmitted by coughs and sneezes. They don't show symptoms but if weakened by another disease they will show symptoms
1.5 Global impact
1.5.1 Malaria, TB and HIV are most common in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. Limited healthcare, education, equipment and overcrowded. The prevalance of them slows down social and economic development because it increases death rates and reduces productivity. Info can be used to find out where people are most at risk. Predict epidemics. Research. Allow organisations to aid where it's most needed
2 Smoking and diseases
2.1 Evidence linking smoking to disease
2.1.1 98% of people with emphysema are smokers
2.1.2 A smoke is 18 times more likely to develop lung cancer than a non smoker
2.1.3 Some substances in smoke contribute to CHD (not fully sure)
2.2 Short and long term effects
2.2.1 Short term effects: tar damages cilia and stimulates goblets cells to secrete more mucus
2.2.2 Long term effects: Smokers cough, results in scar tissue, smooth muscle thickens reduces lumen size, makes the elastic fibers unable to recoil
2.3 Diseases
2.3.1 Emphasyma Type of COPD. Produces an enzyme that breaks down elastin in the elastic fibres. Reduces surface area. Shortness of breath and wheezing. Increased breathing rate.
2.3.2 Chronic bronchitis Type of COPD. Damage of the cilia cause more mucus to be secreted. Increases the coughing. Microorganisms multiply in mucus and cause infections.
2.3.3 Stroke Rapid loss of brain function due to a disruption in the blood supply to the brain. Can be caused by a blood clot
2.3.4 Lung cancer Smoke contains lots of carcinogenic compounds. Benzopyrene is the most harmful. Changes the genetic material (mutations)
2.3.5 Atherosclerosis Damage to the lining of the arteries, WBC move into the area. Over time, WBC, lipids and connective tissue build up and harden to form an atheroma. It partially blocks the artery and restricts blood flow
2.3.6 CHD When coronary arteries have lots of atheromas in them. Reduces blood flow to the heart and cause angina or heart attack because of the lack of oxygen

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