Mind Map by zoetoffee, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by zoetoffee almost 7 years ago


science Mind Map on c4, created by zoetoffee on 05/29/2013.

Resource summary

1 testing water purity
1.1 test 4 sulfate
1.1.1 add hydrocloric acid add barium chloride solution if whie precipitate there is
1.2 test 4 halide ions
1.2.1 add dilute nitric acid add 10 drops of silver nitrat solution if precipitate fors yes there is
2 elements
2.1 isotopes
2.1.1 different form of the same element
2.1.2 same number of protons
2.1.3 different number of nutrons
2.1.4 same atomic number different mass number
2.1.5 eg carbon 12 and carbon 14 carbon 12 6 protons 6 electrons 6 nutrons carbon 14 6 protons 6 electrons 8 neutrons
2.1.6 the number of nutrons is mass - atomic number
2.2 group number of electrons in outer shell
3 metals
3.1 crystal structure
3.1.1 same properties
3.1.2 special bonding that is in metals
3.1.3 held together with metalic bonding
3.1.4 outer electron moves freely
3.1.5 this creates a sea of free electrons
3.2 high
3.2.1 very hard dense and shiney
3.2.2 strong atraction between positive ions delocalised electrons
3.2.3 high melting and boling point large energy needed to break the metallic bonds
3.2.4 strenght of the metallic bond decreases as atomic radious increases and melting point
3.3 strong
3.3.1 hard to break high tensil streangth
3.3.2 hammered into different shapes malleable
3.4 good conducters
3.4.1 the delocolised electrons carry the electrical curent
3.4.2 they also carry heat energy
3.5 use
3.5.1 sausepan stainless steal good heat conducter
3.5.2 electric wiring copper
3.5.3 aeroplane aluminium
3.5.4 bridge steel
4 ion and ionic componds
4.1 ions
4.1.1 charged particals
4.2 ou have to balance the + and -
4.2.1 2K+ k20 the potassium ion 1+ and the oxygen 2- balance because you need 2 positive to the 2 negetive
4.2.2 O2-
4.3 dot and cross diagram
4.3.1 show what happens in ionic bonding
4.3.2 arrows to
5 electron shells
5.1 shells
5.1.1 2nd = 8
5.1.2 3rd =8
5.1.3 1st =2
5.2 electronic configeration
5.2.1 eg. 12= 2,8,2
6 superconducters
6.1 at low teperatures
6.1.1 all have some resistance
6.1.2 mean some eletrical energy turns to heat
6.1.3 if cold enough it disdsapears
6.1.4 dont loose any current
6.2 the catch
6.2.1 you can make powet cables with no lose fast electronic circuites strong electromagnets
6.2.2 has to be colder than -265 c hard and expencive
6.3 transition metals
6.3.1 catalysts iron harbor process nickel hydrogenation
6.3.2 colorful copper often blue iron (ll) often light green iron (lll) often orange or brown
6.3.3 middle of the table have typical metallic propities
7 atoms
7.1 the nucleus
7.1.1 positive protons
7.1.2 netrule neutrons
7.1.3 the nucleus it positive
7.2 electrons
7.2.1 negitivly charged
7.2.2 the electronic shell
7.2.3 virtually no mass
7.3 atomic number and mass
7.3.1 mass top number
7.3.2 mass total of protons and nutron
7.3.3 atomic number number of protons bottom number number of electrons
8 ionic bonding
8.1 transfering electrons
8.1.1 atom loses or gains an electron
8.1.2 forms a charged partical ions
8.1.3 strongley atracted to each other + join together -
8.2 one electron on a shell got to go
8.2.1 they like to hace a full outer shell
8.2.2 once they get rid thy become positivley charged
8.2.3 they will leapat the chance to stick to a negativ ion
8.3 nearly full shell wants an extra
8.3.1 gain an electron to fill the shell
8.3.2 become negetivly charged
8.4 eg
8.4.1 sodium gives up an electron NA+
8.4.2 chlorine picks p an atom CL- forms ionic bond
8.5 giant ionic lattice
8.5.1 made from metals and non metals
8.5.2 strong chemical bonds in all ions
9 groups
9.1 group 1 alkali metals
9.1.1 oxidation loss of electrons the more reactive the happier to lose
9.1.2 cold water produces hydrogen gas eg sodium they fizz reactivity increases the lower down the group potasium get hot enough to ignight sodium and potasium melt alkali forms 2 Na + 2 H2O > 2 NaOH + H2
9.1.3 burn with charicteristic colors lithium =red sodium =yellow potassium = lilac
9.1.4 key facts they all have one outer electron low melting point low density very soft they always form ionic NEVER COVALENT
9.2 group 7 halogens
9.2.1 key facts they all have 7 outer electrons as you go down they become less reactive melting point increase at room tempreature chlorine poisonoius dense green gas fairley reactive iodine dark gray crystlline solid bromine poisonous orange liquid
9.2.2 reduction keenn to gain an electron become a 1- ion stabel electronic structure the more reactive the happier it i to gain gain of electrons is called reduction
9.2.3 form salts react with alkli metals makes salt called METAL HALIDES reactions eg 2 Na + Cl2 > 2 NaCl Sodium + Chlorine > sodium chloride 2 K + Br2 > 2 KBr potassium + bromine > potassium bromide
9.2.4 displace more reactive halogen dispalce less reactive ones eg Chlorine + potassium iodide > iodine+ potassium chloride
10 covalent bonding
10.1 sharing electrons
10.1.1 non metals combine to for convalent bonds
10.1.2 both atoms have a full outer shell
10.1.3 each provides one extra electron
10.2 dot and cross
10.2.1 overlap
10.3 simple molecular substances
10.3.1 covalent bods usely have simple molucal structures eg H2O and CO2
10.3.2 held together with very strong covalent bonds
10.3.3 force between them is very weak low boiling point lowmelting point
10.3.4 at room tempreture gases and liquids
10.3.5 the dont conduct electricity no free electrons
11 water purity
11.1 sea water
11.1.1 very expersive
11.1.2 in dry contrey r=they distill sea water
11.1.3 needs alot of energy
11.2 limited resorcesd
11.2.1 industrial coolent
11.2.2 homes for washing
11.2.3 ground water aquifers rocks trsp water upto 70% of water comes from underground
11.2.4 ground water eg lakes rivers reservoirs run dry in summer
11.3 tap water
11.3.1 still contains in puritys
11.3.2 nitrate residue fertalizer running off fields
11.3.3 lead compounds from old pipes
11.3.4 pesicide residue spraying to near lakes
11.4 tretment plants
11.4.1 filteration wire mesh takes out large twigs
11.4.2 sedimentation iron sulphate is added makes small particals clump together
11.4.3 chlorination bubbled through to kill harmfull bacteria
12 thermal decomposition
12.1 hydroxide tests
12.1.1 copper (lll) = blue solid
12.1.2 iron (ll) = gray/green solid
12.1.3 iron (ll) = orange/brown solid
12.2 solid forms in solution
12.2.1 2 solution react and make a solid in the solution
12.2.2 called a precipitate
12.3 breaking down with heat
12.3.1 breaks into at leat 2 other substances
12.3.2 break down into metal oxide and carbon dioxide eg. copper oxide
12.3.3 check for carbon dioxide = lime water
13 history
13.1 theories backed up
13.1.1 so that it can be checked for errors
13.1.2 so other scientists can use it to develope there own work
13.2 time line
13.2.1 john darlton jj thomson rutherford gold foil experimenthe came up with the thery of the nuclear atom found that the plum pudding was wrong bohr electrons can only exist in fixed orbits it was pretty clos to our current accepted verrsion found the charges and mass whch showed they wernt solid spheres new thery was called the plum pudding described them as solid spheres and said that different spheres made different elements
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