c4

zoetoffee
Mind Map by zoetoffee, updated more than 1 year ago
zoetoffee
Created by zoetoffee almost 7 years ago
126
1

Description

science Mind Map on c4, created by zoetoffee on 05/29/2013.
Tags

Resource summary

c4
1 testing water purity
1.1 test 4 sulfate
1.1.1 add hydrocloric acid
1.1.1.1 add barium chloride solution
1.1.1.1.1 if whie precipitate there is
1.2 test 4 halide ions
1.2.1 add dilute nitric acid
1.2.1.1 add 10 drops of silver nitrat solution
1.2.1.1.1 if precipitate fors yes there is
2 elements
2.1 isotopes
2.1.1 different form of the same element
2.1.2 same number of protons
2.1.3 different number of nutrons
2.1.4 same atomic number different mass number
2.1.5 eg carbon 12 and carbon 14
2.1.5.1 carbon 12
2.1.5.1.1 6 protons
2.1.5.1.2 6 electrons
2.1.5.1.3 6 nutrons
2.1.5.2 carbon 14
2.1.5.2.1 6 protons
2.1.5.2.2 6 electrons
2.1.5.2.3 8 neutrons
2.1.6 the number of nutrons is mass - atomic number
2.2 group number of electrons in outer shell
3 metals
3.1 crystal structure
3.1.1 same properties
3.1.2 special bonding that is in metals
3.1.3 held together with metalic bonding
3.1.4 outer electron moves freely
3.1.5 this creates a sea of free electrons
3.2 high
3.2.1 very hard dense and shiney
3.2.2 strong atraction between
3.2.2.1 positive ions
3.2.2.2 delocalised electrons
3.2.3 high melting and boling point
3.2.3.1 large energy needed to break the metallic bonds
3.2.4 strenght of the metallic bond decreases as atomic radious increases
3.2.4.1 and melting point
3.3 strong
3.3.1 hard to break
3.3.1.1 high tensil streangth
3.3.2 hammered into different shapes
3.3.2.1 malleable
3.4 good conducters
3.4.1 the delocolised electrons carry the electrical curent
3.4.2 they also carry heat energy
3.5 use
3.5.1 sausepan
3.5.1.1 stainless steal
3.5.1.1.1 good heat conducter
3.5.2 electric wiring
3.5.2.1 copper
3.5.3 aeroplane
3.5.3.1 aluminium
3.5.4 bridge
3.5.4.1 steel
4 ion and ionic componds
4.1 ions
4.1.1 charged particals
4.2 ou have to balance the + and -
4.2.1 2K+
4.2.1.1 k20
4.2.1.1.1 the potassium ion 1+ and the oxygen 2- balance because you need 2 positive to the 2 negetive
4.2.2 O2-
4.2.2.1
4.3 dot and cross diagram
4.3.1 show what happens in ionic bonding
4.3.2 arrows to
5 electron shells
5.1 shells
5.1.1 2nd = 8
5.1.2 3rd =8
5.1.3 1st =2
5.2 electronic configeration
5.2.1 eg. 12= 2,8,2
6 superconducters
6.1 at low teperatures
6.1.1 all have some resistance
6.1.2 mean some eletrical energy turns to heat
6.1.3 if cold enough
6.1.3.1 it disdsapears
6.1.4 dont loose any current
6.2 the catch
6.2.1 you can make
6.2.1.1 powet cables with no lose
6.2.1.2 fast electronic circuites
6.2.1.3 strong electromagnets
6.2.2 has to be colder than -265 c
6.2.2.1 hard and expencive
6.3 transition metals
6.3.1 catalysts
6.3.1.1 iron
6.3.1.1.1 harbor process
6.3.1.2 nickel
6.3.1.2.1 hydrogenation
6.3.2 colorful
6.3.2.1 copper often blue
6.3.2.2 iron (ll) often light green
6.3.2.3 iron (lll) often orange or brown
6.3.3 middle of the table
6.3.3.1 have typical metallic propities
7 atoms
7.1 the nucleus
7.1.1 positive protons
7.1.2 netrule neutrons
7.1.3 the nucleus it positive
7.2 electrons
7.2.1 negitivly charged
7.2.2 the electronic shell
7.2.3 virtually no mass
7.3 atomic number and mass
7.3.1 mass top number
7.3.2 mass total of protons and nutron
7.3.3 atomic number
7.3.3.1 number of protons
7.3.3.2 bottom number
7.3.3.3 number of electrons
8 ionic bonding
8.1 transfering electrons
8.1.1 atom loses or gains an electron
8.1.2 forms a charged partical
8.1.2.1 ions
8.1.3 strongley atracted to each other
8.1.3.1 +
8.1.3.1.1 join together
8.1.3.2 -
8.1.3.2.1
8.2 one electron on a shell got to go
8.2.1 they like to hace a full outer shell
8.2.2 once they get rid thy become positivley charged
8.2.3 they will leapat the chance to stick to a negativ ion
8.3 nearly full shell wants an extra
8.3.1 gain an electron to fill the shell
8.3.2 become negetivly charged
8.4 eg
8.4.1 sodium gives up an electron
8.4.1.1 NA+
8.4.1.1.1
8.4.2 chlorine picks p an atom
8.4.2.1 CL-
8.4.2.1.1 forms ionic bond
8.5 giant ionic lattice
8.5.1 made from metals and non metals
8.5.2 strong chemical bonds in all ions
9 groups
9.1 group 1 alkali metals
9.1.1 oxidation
9.1.1.1 loss of electrons
9.1.1.2 the more reactive the happier to lose
9.1.2 cold water
9.1.2.1 produces hydrogen gas
9.1.2.2 eg sodium
9.1.2.3 they fizz
9.1.2.4 reactivity increases the lower down the group
9.1.2.4.1 potasium get hot enough to ignight
9.1.2.4.2 sodium and potasium melt
9.1.2.5 alkali forms
9.1.2.5.1 2 Na + 2 H2O > 2 NaOH + H2
9.1.3 burn with charicteristic colors
9.1.3.1 lithium =red
9.1.3.2 sodium =yellow
9.1.3.3 potassium = lilac
9.1.4 key facts
9.1.4.1 they all have one outer electron
9.1.4.2 low melting point
9.1.4.3 low density
9.1.4.4 very soft
9.1.4.5 they always form ionic
9.1.4.5.1 NEVER COVALENT
9.2 group 7 halogens
9.2.1 key facts
9.2.1.1 they all have 7 outer electrons
9.2.1.2 as you go down they become less reactive
9.2.1.2.1 melting point increase
9.2.1.3 at room tempreature
9.2.1.3.1 chlorine
9.2.1.3.1.1 poisonoius
9.2.1.3.1.2 dense green gas
9.2.1.3.1.3 fairley reactive
9.2.1.3.2 iodine
9.2.1.3.2.1 dark gray crystlline solid
9.2.1.3.3 bromine
9.2.1.3.3.1 poisonous
9.2.1.3.3.2 orange liquid
9.2.2 reduction
9.2.2.1 keenn to gain an electron
9.2.2.1.1 become a 1- ion
9.2.2.1.2 stabel electronic structure
9.2.2.2 the more reactive the happier it i to gain
9.2.2.3 gain of electrons is called reduction
9.2.3 form salts
9.2.3.1 react with alkli metals
9.2.3.1.1 makes salt called METAL HALIDES
9.2.3.2 reactions eg
9.2.3.2.1 2 Na + Cl2 > 2 NaCl
9.2.3.2.1.1 Sodium + Chlorine > sodium chloride
9.2.3.2.2 2 K + Br2 > 2 KBr
9.2.3.2.2.1 potassium + bromine > potassium bromide
9.2.4 displace
9.2.4.1 more reactive halogen dispalce less reactive ones
9.2.4.1.1 eg
9.2.4.1.1.1 Chlorine + potassium iodide > iodine+ potassium chloride
10 covalent bonding
10.1 sharing electrons
10.1.1 non metals combine to for convalent bonds
10.1.2 both atoms have a full outer shell
10.1.3 each provides one extra electron
10.2 dot and cross
10.2.1 overlap
10.3 simple molecular substances
10.3.1 covalent bods usely have simple molucal structures
10.3.1.1 eg H2O and CO2
10.3.2 held together with very strong covalent bonds
10.3.3 force between them is very weak
10.3.3.1 low boiling point
10.3.3.2 lowmelting point
10.3.4 at room tempreture gases and liquids
10.3.5 the dont conduct electricity
10.3.5.1 no free electrons
11 water purity
11.1 sea water
11.1.1 very expersive
11.1.2 in dry contrey r=they distill sea water
11.1.3 needs alot of energy
11.2 limited resorcesd
11.2.1 industrial coolent
11.2.2 homes for washing
11.2.3 ground water
11.2.3.1 aquifers
11.2.3.1.1 rocks trsp water
11.2.3.2 upto 70% of water comes from underground
11.2.4 ground water
11.2.4.1 eg lakes rivers reservoirs
11.2.4.1.1 run dry in summer
11.3 tap water
11.3.1 still contains in puritys
11.3.2 nitrate residue
11.3.2.1 fertalizer running off fields
11.3.3 lead compounds
11.3.3.1 from old pipes
11.3.4 pesicide residue
11.3.4.1 spraying to near lakes
11.4 tretment plants
11.4.1 filteration
11.4.1.1 wire mesh
11.4.1.2 takes out large twigs
11.4.2 sedimentation
11.4.2.1 iron sulphate is added
11.4.2.1.1 makes small particals clump together
11.4.3 chlorination
11.4.3.1 bubbled through to kill harmfull bacteria
12 thermal decomposition
12.1 hydroxide tests
12.1.1 copper (lll) = blue solid
12.1.2 iron (ll) = gray/green solid
12.1.3 iron (ll) = orange/brown solid
12.2 solid forms in solution
12.2.1 2 solution react and make a solid in the solution
12.2.2 called a precipitate
12.3 breaking down with heat
12.3.1 breaks into at leat 2 other substances
12.3.2 break down into metal oxide and carbon dioxide
12.3.2.1 eg. copper oxide
12.3.3 check for carbon dioxide = lime water
13 history
13.1 theories backed up
13.1.1 so that it can be checked for errors
13.1.2 so other scientists can use it to develope there own work
13.2 time line
13.2.1 john darlton
13.2.1.1 jj thomson
13.2.1.1.1 rutherford
13.2.1.1.1.1 gold foil experimenthe came up with the thery of the nuclear atom found that the plum pudding was wrong
13.2.1.1.1.2 bohr
13.2.1.1.1.2.1 electrons can only exist in fixed orbits
13.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 it was pretty clos to our current accepted verrsion
13.2.1.1.2 found the charges and mass whch showed they wernt solid spheres new thery was called the plum pudding
13.2.1.2 described them as solid spheres and said that different spheres made different elements
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Using GoConqr to study science
Sarah Egan
AQA Physics P1 Quiz
Bella Statham
Acids and Bases
Sarah Egan
Using GoConqr to teach science
Sarah Egan
Biology Revision - Y10 Mock
Tom Mitchell
GCSE Combined Science
Derek Cumberbatch
Biology- Genes and Variation
Laura Perry
Physics Revision
Tom Mitchell
The Circulatory System
Shane Buckley
Acids and Bases
silviaod119
Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
silviaod119