Why did the Cold War end?


Mind Map on Why did the Cold War end?, created by edengood on 05/29/2013.
Mind Map by edengood, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by edengood almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Why did the Cold War end?
    1. Poland
      1. Solidarity was illegal trade union group, made illegal in 1981 by Jaruzelski who imposed martial law
        1. Had papal support from Pope John Paul II
          1. Made legal eventually in 1989 and beat the communist party in free elections, winning all but 1 seat
            1. Walesa elected as president of Poland in 1990
            2. East Germany
              1. East Germans could see changes made in USSR- Glasnost, wanted change in ideology
                1. Thousands fled to West German embassy in Budapest, stayed there and protested as could enter Hungary
                  1. Eventually allowed entry to West Berlin, trains given to transport people through- people threw identity cards at guards
                    1. Still huge protests in Leipzig in Germany, Honnecker forced to resign
                      1. Miscommunication with government, Shabowski unsure on when borders to be opened- said immediately
                        1. people fled to borders, guards confused- eventually opened borders to West Germany:
                          1. Honeckers successor, Egon Krenz allowed wall to be dismantled by Berliners soon after as a sign of reunification
                          2. Hungary
                            1. Romania
                            2. ECONOMICS
                              1. Reagan's Strategic Defence Initiative put huge economic pressure on USSR
                                1. Reignited the arms race aiming to outmanouvre the USSR economically
                                  1. USSR and soviet bloc stagnating- no money to develop technology, industry was bad
                                    1. Gorbachev created 'Perestroika'- privitisation of some industry- move towards capitalism
                                      1. spending $40 billion a year on Eastern Europe, couldn't afford it anymore
                                      2. CHANGE IN IDEOLOGIES
                                        1. Gorbachev
                                          1. saw no point in carrying on war, came up with new ideologies
                                            1. Glasnost- 'openess'- wanted people to voice new ideas, freedom of speech
                                              1. Democratization- wanted free and fair elections after all
                                                1. not part of the gerontocracy, actually had ideas
                                              2. Reagan
                                                1. staunch anti-communist
                                                  1. developed a genuinely good relationship with Gorbachev and achieved many things with him politically
                                                    1. first US president to be 100% against nuclear weapons
                                                  2. End of Brezhnev and Reagan doctrines
                                                    1. Reagan doctrine said they'd give aid to any country where they're being persecuted by a minority
                                                      1. Didn't want to get involved anymore
                                                      2. brezhnev doctrine said an attack on one communist country was an attack on all and would serve as an ally and support them in resisting
                                                        1. didn't want to get involved any more, no more communist interfeerance
                                                      3. Summits
                                                        1. Geneva Summit 1985- Reagan and Gorby
                                                          1. discussed SDI and both refused to budge on arms race but they both wanted peace
                                                          2. Reykjavik Summit 1986- Reagan and Gorby
                                                            1. human rights became a hot topic which they started to agree on
                                                              1. talks called off at last minute but the progress they did make was enforced in the INF treaty- intermediate range nuclear forces treaty
                                                              2. Washington summit 1987- Reagan and Gorby
                                                                1. Progress of START discussions, Strategic Defense Initiative(SDI), Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, Afghanistan, the Iran–Iraq War
                                                                  1. Human rights, emigration, improvement in relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States, arms control
                                                                  2. Moscow Summit 1988- Reagan and Gorby
                                                                    1. finalized the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) after the U.S. Senate's ratification of the treaty in May 1988
                                                                      1. continued to discuss bilateral issues like Central America, Southern Africa, the Middle East and the pending withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Reagan and Gorbachev continued their discussions on human rights.
                                                                      2. Malta Summit 1989- George W Bush and Gorby
                                                                        1. At a minimum, it marked the lessening of tensions of that era, and signaled a major turning point in East-West relations. During the summit, Bush expressed support for perestroika and other reforms in the Communist bloc.
                                                                          1. No agreements were signed. main purpose was to provide the United States and the Soviet Union with an opportunity to discuss the rapid changes taking place in Europe with the lifting of the Iron Curtain.The summit is viewed by some observers as the official end of the Cold War.
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                                                                        World War II Notebook
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