Depression- Psychopathology Revision

Description

AQA AS and A Level Psychopathology: Depression. Includes Characteristics, Explanations, and Treatment.
Grace Fawcitt
Mind Map by Grace Fawcitt, updated more than 1 year ago
Grace Fawcitt
Created by Grace Fawcitt over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Depression- Psychopathology Revision
  1. Characteristics
    1. Behavioural
      1. Activity levels
        1. Lethargy
          1. Psychomotor agitation
            1. Difficulty relaxing
          2. Sleep and diet disruption
            1. Aggression and self-harm
            2. Emotional
              1. Lowered mood
                1. Empty/worthless
                2. Anger
                  1. Lowered self-esteem
                    1. Self-loathing
                  2. Cognitive
                    1. Poor concentration
                      1. Paying attention to the negative
                        1. Absolutist thinking
                          1. All good or all bad, no in between
                      2. Explanation
                        1. Cognitive
                          1. Beck, 1967
                            1. Faulty information processing
                              1. Only focusing on negative aspects
                                1. Winning £1,000,000 in lottery, but previous winner won £10,000,000
                                2. Blowing small problems out of proportion
                                3. Negative self schemas
                                  1. A 'schema' is a package of information developed through experience
                                    1. They act as a mental framework for our interpretation of information
                                      1. A negative self-schema is when we interpret all information about ourselves in a negative way
                                    2. The negative triad
                                      1. World
                                        1. World is horrible place
                                          1. Hopelessness
                                        2. Future
                                          1. Future is bleak
                                          2. Self
                                            1. I am a failure
                                              1. Low self esteem
                                          3. Evaluation
                                            1. Good supporting evidence
                                              1. These faulty cognitions are seen before depression, suggesting they may be the cause, not the effect
                                              2. Practical application
                                                1. CBT
                                                2. Doesn't explain all aspects
                                                  1. Can't explain anger or hallucinations
                                              3. Ellis, 1962
                                                1. ABC model
                                                  1. A- Activating event
                                                    1. Negative events (e.g. bereavement) cause irrational thoughts
                                                    2. B- Beliefs
                                                      1. Musturbation
                                                        1. Always being successful
                                                        2. Utopianism
                                                          1. Life must always be fair
                                                        3. C- Consequences
                                                          1. Emotional and behavioural consequences
                                                            1. If you aren't always successful, this may trigger depression
                                                        4. Depression is result of irrational thoughts
                                                          1. Evaluation
                                                            1. Partial explanation
                                                              1. Only works for reactive depression
                                                              2. Practical application
                                                                1. CBT
                                                        5. Treatment
                                                          1. Cognitive
                                                            1. CBT
                                                              1. Beck
                                                                1. Identify negative triad
                                                                  1. Challenge negative triad
                                                                    1. Reality testing
                                                                      1. Patient as scientist
                                                                        1. Recording when something made them feel good
                                                                      2. Ellis
                                                                        1. REBT
                                                                          1. The ABCDE model
                                                                            1. D- Dispute
                                                                              1. E- Effect
                                                                              2. Identify and dispute irrational thoughts
                                                                                1. Vigorous argument
                                                                                  1. Empirical
                                                                                    1. Is there any evidence?
                                                                                    2. Logical
                                                                                      1. Does negative thought logically follow from facts?
                                                                                2. Evaluation
                                                                                  1. It is effective
                                                                                    1. CBT just as effective as medication, and increased improvement rates when combined with drugs
                                                                                    2. May not work on severe cases
                                                                                      1. Have to be motivated enough to engage
                                                                                        1. Can't be sole treatment
                                                                                        2. Some patients don't want to focus on present and future, but their past instead
                                                                                          1. Frustrating
                                                                                          2. Overemphasis on cognition
                                                                                            1. Disregards patient's situation e.g. poverty
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