What opposition did the Nazis have?


History (Germany) Mind Map on What opposition did the Nazis have?, created by Ashley.C on 05/30/2013.
Mind Map by Ashley.C, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Ashley.C almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

What opposition did the Nazis have?
  1. The Nazis were aware of the importance of maintaining good relationships with the Church in Germany, as many Germans were committed Christians.
    1. At first the Christian Churches seemed keen to work with the Nazis. In 1933 the Catholic Church & the Nazis signed an agreement called the Concordat. The Church agreed not to make comments on political matters, if the Nazis did not interfere in religion.
      1. Hitler broke the promise & interfered more & more in Church matters, like closing down Catholic Youth movements as they rivalled his own Hitler Youth. In 1937, Pope Pius XI denounced Nazism as anti-Christian & in 1941 had a letter criticising the Nazis for their abuse of human rights, read out in Catholic Churches.
        1. Hitler responded by sending nuns & priests to labour camps. Relationships with Protestant Churches also deteriorated sharply under the Nazis, when Hitler set up the Reich Church. 800 Protestant churchmen, such as Pastor Martin Niemoller, were sent to labour camps for speaking against the Nazis.
          1. Some army generals were highly suspicious of the Nazis. One of the most prominent was General Ludwig Beck, who disgraced with Hitler's expansionist foreign policy. Hitler's reaction was to sack large numbers of generals in 1938, including Beck.
            1. Although the Hitler Youth movement was very popular with many German youngsters, some objected to the restrictions placed on the them.Around 1 million young people refused to join the Hitler Youth Movements.
              1. They did not want training for the army or motherhood. Instead they were more interested in dancing to American & English songs & listening to Jazz music. They listened to overseas radio stations, meaning that they heard anti-Nazi ideas.
                1. Other problems came from gangs such as the Navajos Gang or Edelweiss Pirates. Usually made up of 14-17 years old, they often fought members of the Hitler Youth & in some cities became major problems for the authorities.
                  1. Two main upper class organisations opposed the Nazis. The Kreisau Circle wanted the Nazis overthrown, but were no men of violence. In 1944 their leaders were executed. The Beck-Goerdeler Group, realised that the only way to get rid of Hitler was to assassinate him (July plots).
                    1. There was increasing opposition to the Nazis from within the German upper classes. By 1940 the people were tired of Nazi brutality & feared that Hitler's aggressive foreign policy might lead to Germany's ruin.
                      1. When WW2 began to go badly fro the Germans, some of the opposition to the Nazis turned to open resistance. A group of Uni students in Munich led by Hans & Sophie Scholl, formed the White Rose movement. They handed out pamphlets for people who wanted to oppose the Nazi regime. The Scholls & other leaders were executed in 1943.
                        1. Gang activities had gotten serious (Allied propaganda). In July 1944, a supporter of the Beck-Goerdeler Group, attended a meeting with Hitler & placed a briefcase with a bomb inside under the table. The bomb went off, but Hitler was not seriously injured. Those responsible for the July plot were executed.
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