Search for Settlement (1646 - 1649)

stacie.carter
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Mind Map on Search for Settlement (1646 - 1649), created by stacie.carter on 05/30/2013.

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stacie.carter
Created by stacie.carter over 6 years ago
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Search for Settlement (1646 - 1649)
1 Groups Involved
1.1 Charles I
1.1.1 defeated, alone, prisoner (taken to Newcastle by Scots)
1.1.2 indispensable for success for any settlement
1.1.3 hoped to divide his enemies
1.1.4 BUT had no ministers to advise him/take blame
1.2 Scots
1.2.1 1646: C in custody
1.2.2 wanted Presby church following Scot model
1.2.3 wanted P to pay Scottish military costs
1.2.4 not interested in limits on royal power
1.3 Parliament
1.3.1 divided: 2/3 Political Presby VS 1/3 Political Independents
1.3.2 Political Presbyteriand
1.3.2.1 moderates, ex Peace Party, generally Presby
1.3.2.2 wanted quick settlement, disband NMA, Presby church
1.3.2.3 leading figure = Denzil Holles
1.3.3 Political Independents
1.3.3.1 radicals, ex War Party, generally Independents
1.3.3.2 wanted strict settlement, religious tolerations, NMA remain
1.3.3.3 leading figure = Oliver Cromwell
1.4 Army (from 1647)
1.4.1 Grandees
1.4.1.1 Fairfax, Cromwell, Ireton (gentry)
1.4.1.2 strict settlement, no compromise
1.4.1.3 religious toleration
1.4.1.4 army remain - ensure settlement
1.4.2 Rank and File
1.4.2.1 pardon for actions in war (indemnity)
1.4.2.2 war pensions for families
1.4.2.3 lower taxes
1.4.2.4 action against unemployment & enclosures
1.4.2.5 religious toleration
1.4.2.6 vote
1.5 Levellers
1.5.1 civilian group, based in London
1.5.2 led by John Lilburn (Puritan radical)
1.5.3 won support from 'middling sort'
1.5.4 wanted fair taxes, religious toleration
1.5.5 wanted measures to address unemployment & poverty
1.5.6 government by 'representatives' of people elected by the people every year
1.6 Puritan Sects
1.6.1 Fifth Monarchists
1.6.2 Baptists
1.6.3 Quakers
1.6.4 Ranters
1.6.5 Muggletonians
1.6.6 all wanted religious toleration
1.7 Potential Alliances
1.7.1 Grandees & Political Independents
1.7.2 Levellers & Rank and File
1.7.3 Puritan Sects & Army/Levellers
1.7.4 Charles & Scors
1.8 Potentials for Conflict between
1.8.1 P & Army (esp. Political Presby & Grandees)
1.8.2 Scots & most of English
2 Parliaments Negotiations with the King
2.1 Propositions of Newcastle, July 1646
2.1.1 MPs sent peace negotiations to C @ Newcastle
2.1.1.1 P approval of ministers
2.1.1.2 abolition of bishops
2.1.1.3 Presbyterian church
2.1.1.4 P control army for 20yrs
2.1.1.5 punishment of 58 Royalists
2.1.2 C played for time, waiting for division among MPs & discontent in army
2.1.3 in private = totally against terms & trying to divide enemies
2.2 Scots handed over King, Jan 1647
2.2.1 P paid Scots £400,000 ( didn't pay NMA)
2.2.2 in return Scots handed over C - taken to Holmby House
2.2.3 army disliked terms of agreement - worried settlement more likely
2.3 King's 3rd Reply to Propositions of Newcastle, May 1647
2.3.1 C refused to allow P to have say over ministers
2.3.2 refused punishment of supporters
2.3.3 suggested Presby church for 3yrs (Royal family remain Anglican)
2.3.4 P control army for 10yrs - then control completely returned to C
3 Parliaments Relations with the Army
3.1 Parliament's attempts to disband New Model Army
3.1.1 18th Feb: Commons voted to reduce army to 6,000 men (from 20,000)
3.1.2 8th March: H of C voted only Presby could be officers & that soldiers campaigning for full pay arrears = enemies of state
3.1.3 18th May: C 3rd reply to Newcastle Propositions announced
3.1.4 25th May: H of C voted to disband NMA with 8 weeks back pay (owed 8 months) - 22,000 soldiers could volunteer for new army = outraged
3.2 Army Rebellion: Politicisation of Army, May - Aug 1647
3.2.1 29th May: Fairfax ordered army to meet @ Newmarket
3.2.2 4th June: Cornet Joyce & 500 soldiers seized C & took him to Newmarket then Hampton Court - now army prisoner
3.2.3 5th June: army issued 'Solemn Engagement@ refusing to disband until grievances met
3.2.4 @ this time, General Council of Army se up, compromised of: generals, officers, agitators (men elected by soldiers)
3.2.5 14th June: General Council issued Representation of Army
3.2.6 23rd July: army generals sent peace proposals to C (Heads of Proposals)
3.2.7 C delayed; issued evasive replies & rejected proposals (hoped more generous offer from P)
3.2.8 6th - 8th Aug: army surrounded London & Westminster - expelled 11 MPs from P inc. Holles
3.2.9 MPs had continued to refuse to acknowledge army rights to have say in political issues
4 Levellers and the Army
4.1 The Levellers
4.1.1 civilian radicals
4.1.2 led by Lilburne, Walwyn & Overton
4.1.3 printed pamphlets & held demonstrations
4.1.4 campaigning in army - worrying generals
4.2 'Case of the Army Truly Stated', 18th Oct 1647
4.2.1 pamphlet distributed among ordinary soldiers
4.2.2 written by Wildman, Leveller
4.2.3 demanded "speedy acting's to address common grievances of the poor & oppressed people of the nation"
4.2.3.1 pardon for soldiers
4.2.3.2 pensions for injured & widows
4.2.3.3 full back-pay
4.2.3.4 biennial parliaments
4.2.3.5 right to vote for all "free-born Englishmen" over 21 (although ideas still evolving & unclear
4.2.3.6 P = people's representation it should be supreme power in government
4.3 Agreement of the People, 28th Oct 1647
4.3.1 proposals by Levellers sent to generals & soldiers
4.3.2 based on principles inc. - supremacy of power - fundamental freedoms - equality before law
4.3.3 main demands = redistribution of P seats, elections for new P of peoples representatives, biennial Ps
4.3.4 fundamental rights inc. = religious toleration, no conscription, general pardon for actions in war, equality before law
4.3.5 described C - man who "intended our bondage & brought a cruel war on us"
4.4 Putney Debates, 25th Oct - 11th Nov 1647
4.4.1 talks between army generals, Levellers & soldiers representatives
4.4.2 took place in St Mary's Church, Putney
4.4.3 disagreed over: C & Lords part in government & right to vote
4.4.4 11th Nov: Cromwell agreed to end talks & arrange mass army meeting
4.4.5 15th Nov: army met in 3 places - Ware = attempted Leveller mutiny - ringleaders arrested & shot (no more trouble)
5 The Second Civil War
5.1 Four Bills, Dec 1647
5.1.1 MPs sent representatives to discuss with king:
5.1.1.1 P control of the army for 20yrs
5.1.1.2 Presby church for 3yrs
5.1.1.3 abolition of bishops
5.1.1.4 58 Royalists punished
5.1.2 C delayed answer
5.2 The Engagement, 26th Dec 1647
5.2.1 C = secret alliance with Scots; hoped with armed help could win new war (Scots worried bout spread of Puritanism)
5.2.2 Scots agreed to invade; believed remaining Royalists would join them with moderates & lower-classes
5.2.3 C = establish Presby church for 3yrs
5.3 Vote of No Address, Jan 1648
5.3.1 outrage in P & army when engagement leaked - P & army reunited
5.3.2 Cromwell pushed for harsh settlement as C couldn't be trusted
5.3.3 MPs passed Vote - broke negotiations with C & declared it an act of treason to negotiate with him
5.3.4 radicals = put on trial & republic set up
5.4 Second Civil War 1648
5.4.1 April 1648: uprisings in Kent, Essex & S. Wales, half navy mutinied against P & declared for C, who planned to escape but failed
5.4.2 May: army met for prayer meeting @ Windsor; Cromwell focused on providence, played down C's status & implied responsibility (death not punishment atm)
5.4.3 Aug: Scot army invaded, poorly led & supplied, little support in Eng
5.4.4 Battle of Preston, 17th Aug 1648
5.4.4.1 15,000 Scots & 3,000 Eng Royalists fighting Cromwell & 15,000 soldiers from NMA
5.4.4.2 Scots defeated & Cromwell remained in N.
6 English Revolution
6.1 After Second Civil War
6.1.1 Royalist strongholds - blown up & leaders sent over seas
6.1.2 Levellers = abolition of monarchy
6.1.3 army = desire to punish C - influence of Levellers, saw C as "man of blood", belief in providence (God against C)
6.2 Newport Treaty, Sept - Dec 1648
6.2.1 24th Aug: MPs repealed Vote of No Address
6.2.2 Sept: P sent representatives to negotiate; C agreed to - P control of army (20yrs), appointment of ministers (10yrs), Presby church (3yrs)
6.2.3 he refused: to abolish bishops & punishment of Royalists, to accept Presby church for his family
6.3 Pride's Purge, 6th-7th Dec 1648
6.3.1 1st Dec: army seized king - marched to London
6.3.2 5th Dec: MPs voted to continue negotiations
6.3.3 6-7th Dec: army surrounded P, Colonel Pride excluded 186 MPs, arrested 45, 86 left in protest - 154 MPs allowed = Rump (army seized power)
6.3.4 Cromwell returned to London after
6.4 Army Remonstrance, 15th Nov 1648
6.4.1 council of officers met @ St Albans
6.4.2 Ireton = leading figure - demanded purge of P, trial of C
6.4.3 MPs rejected Remonstrance 125:58
6.5 What to do with the King?
6.5.1 Various Options
6.5.1.1 trial & execution - But C's authority higher than law courts & may provoke serious opposition
6.5.1.2 deposition - C still gain support
6.5.1.3 had been imprisoned since 1646 & still trouble
6.5.1.4 exile - still gain support
6.5.1.5 murder or further negotiations?
6.5.2 however trial & execution = advantages
6.5.2.1 public = minimise opposition
6.5.2.2 demonstrate power of P
6.5.2.3 demonstrate kings not above law
6.5.2.4 would appear legal (but judges handpicked)
6.6 Charles rejected Final Demands, 26th Dec 1648
6.6.1 Cromwell finally decided to support trial
6.7 Trial and Execution of Charles I, Dec 1648 - Jan 1649
6.7.1 28th Dec: Rump passed ordinances creating High Court of Justice - judges refused to serve - H of L rejected ordinance
6.7.2 4th Jan: Rump voted it was supreme authority
6.7.3 6th Jan: Rump passed Act of Parliament creating High Court of Justice = 135 commissioners (judge & jury)
6.7.4 20th Jan: trial began in Westminster Hall; President of Court = John Bradshaw - C defended himself well without stammer

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