Chemistry Facts

Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

A Levels Chemistry Mind Map on Chemistry Facts, created by beth2384 on 05/31/2013.

Created by beth2384 about 6 years ago
Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
Chemistry GCSE Review - States of Matter, Particles, Atoms, Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
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Flame tests
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Connected Educators
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Acids and Bases
Chemical Symbols
The Periodic Table
Acids, Bases and Salts
Chemistry Facts
1 1 Principles of Chemistry
1.1 mass of particles
1.1.1 proton= 1
1.1.2 neutron= 1
1.1.3 electron= 1/1836
1.1.4 charge of particles neutron= 0 proton= +1 electron= -1
1.2 isotopes
1.2.1 same number of protons, different number of electrons
1.3 Electrolysis
1.3.1 molten lead bromide cathode - Pb²⁺ + 2e⁻ → Pb anode + 2Br⁻ → Br₂ + 2e⁻
1.3.2 of aqueous solutions Sulphuric acid cathode - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ → H₂ anode + 4OH⁻ → O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻ Sodium Chloride cathode - 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ → H₂ anode + 2Cl⁻ → Cl₂ + 2e⁻ Copper (ii) sulphate cathode - Cu²⁺ + 2e⁻ → Cu anode + 4OH⁻ → O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻ cathode- hydrogen unless metal ion is less reactive anode- hydroxide unless halide ions present
1.4 Electrolysis- calculating masses
1.4.1 charge= current x time
1.4.2 96,000 Coulombs= 1 faraday = one mole of electrons
2 2 Chemistry of the Elements
2.1 Group 1
2.1.1 more reactive down the group
2.1.2 metal + water → metalhydroxide hydrogen
2.2 Group 7
2.2.1 The Halogens
2.2.2 Chlorine green gas colourless in water
2.2.3 Bromine red-brown liquid orange in water
2.2.4 Iodine dark grey solid brown in water
2.2.5 more reactive up the group
2.2.6 Hydrogen chloride gas dissociates in water but not in methylbenzene
2.2.7 halogens displace eachother
2.3 reactions of metals
2.3.1 metal + acid → salt + hydrogen MASH
2.4 reactivity series
2.4.1 Potassium Sodium Lithium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium (Carbon) Zinc Iron (Hydrogen) Copper Silver Gold Goats Some Coz of Hiding Into Zebras Counting About Made Calculation Little Simple Perfectly
2.5 Iron
2.5.1 iron + oxygen + water → hydrate iron (iii) oxide (rust)
2.6 TESTS- see tests sheet
2.7 Oxygen in reactions
2.7.1 making O₂ in the labs decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) manganese (iv) oxide catalyst 2H₂O₂ → 2H₂O + O₂
2.7.2 Burning with oxygen Magnesium white flame magnesium oxide forms alkaline when dissolved in water Carbon orange yellow flame carbon dioxide forms slightly acidic when dissolved in water Sulphur pale blue flame sulphur dioxide forms acidic when dissolved in water
2.8 making CO₂ in the lab
2.8.1 HCl + CaCO₃ → CaCl₂ + H₂O +CO₂ (hydrochloric acid and limestone)
2.8.2 thermal decomposition of metal carbonates e.g. copper (ii) carbonate green copper (ii) carbonate →black copper (ii) oxide
2.8.3 used in fizzy drinks and fire extinguishers
3 3 Organic Chemistry
3.1 alkanes
3.1.1 order... methane CH₄ ethane propane butane pentane C₅H₁₂ C₄H₁₀ C₃H₈ C₂H₆
3.1.2 CₓH₂ₓ₊₂
3.1.3 complete combustion alkane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
3.1.4 incomplete combustion alkane + oxygen → carbon + carbon monoixde + water (+energy)
3.1.5 react with halogens to make haloalkanes UV needed alkane + 'bromine' → 'bromo'methane +hydrogen'bromide'
3.2 alkenes
3.2.1 order... ethene propene butene C₄H₈ C₃H₆ C₂H₄
3.2.2 CₓH₂ₓ
3.2.3 react with halogens to make haloalkanes shake with bromine water, orange → colourless (test for alkenes) ethene + 'bromine' → di'bromo'ethane 'di' because there are two bromine atoms
3.3 Ethanol production
3.3.1 Fermentation impure slow batch sugar= a renewable resource
3.3.2 steam + ethene conditions phosphoric acid 300°C 60-70atmospheres pure fast continuous C₂H₄ + H₂O → C₂H₅OH (reversible) ethene= a nonrenewable resource
3.3.3 dehydrating ethanol remove water hot catalyst of Al₂O₃ (aluminium oxide)
4 4 Physical Chemistry
4.1 Indicators
4.1.1 phenolphthalein acids- colourless alkalis- bright pink
4.1.2 methyl orange acids- yellow alkalis- red
4.1.3 litmus acids- red neutral- purple alkalis- blue
4.2 reactions of acids
4.2.1 acid + metal oxide → salt + water
4.2.2 acid + metal carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide
4.3 energy transfer
4.3.1 EXOTHERMIC heat given out temp increase bonds broken energy loss
4.3.2 ENDOTHERMIC bonds formed heat taken in temp decrease energy gain
5 5 Chemistry in Industry
5.1 Extracting Aluminium
5.1.1 Cryolite 900 °C
5.1.2 aluminium uses aircraft bodies property: low density
5.1.3 electrolysis
5.2 Extracting Iron
5.2.1 C + O₂ → CO₂ CO₂ + C → 2CO 3CO + Fe₂O₃ → 3CO₂ + 2Fe temp raised to 1500°C
5.2.2 iron is molten and dense when formed
5.2.3 removing impuritites main impurity is sand (silicon dioxide) limestone removes it CaCO₃ → CaO + CO₂ CaO + SiO₂ → CaSiO₃ molten slag forms cooled solid slag used for road-building and fertilisers limestone decomposed by heat
5.2.4 iron uses ornamental gates property: malleable
5.2.5 blast furnace
5.3 fractional distillation
5.3.1 fractions bitumen Fuel Oil Diesel Kerosene Naptha 'Chemical feedstock' Gasoline refinery gases
5.3.2 uses road surfacing, asphalt for roofs domestic central heating, fuel for big ships diesel engined cars, lorries, trains jet engines, pain solvents making plastics, dyes, drugs, explosives, paints fuel for cars bottled gas, making glass, pottery
5.4 pollutants
5.4.1 acid rain is caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
5.5 Cracking
5.5.1 conditions catalyst: silica or alumina temp: 600-700°C
5.6 polymerisation
5.6.1 uses of polymers poly(ethene) plastic bags poly(propene) kettles, food containers, carpets poly(chloroethene) insulating electrical cables, clothes, pipes
5.7 The Haber Process
5.7.1 making Ammonia Uses making nitric acid making ammonium nitrate fertilisers
5.7.2 source of reactants nitrogen from air hydrogen from natural gases
5.7.3 conditions 450°C 200atmospheres iron catalyst
5.8 The Contact Process
5.8.1 making sulphuric acid S + O₂ → SO₂ 2SO₂ + O₂<->2SO₃ SO₃+ H₂SO₄ → H₂S₂O₇ H₂S₂O₇ + H₂O → 2H₂SO₄ OLEUM is diluted forming concentrated sulphuric acid sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form liquid OLEUM reversable reaction
5.8.2 conditions 2atmospheres 450°C vanadium (V) oxide
5.8.3 99% yield
5.8.4 happens quickly
5.8.5 uses (phosphate) fertilisers detergents (cleaning) makes a white pigment used in paint
5.9 electrolysis of brine
5.9.1 products and their uses Chlorine making bleach and HCl sterilising water supplies Hydrogen Haber Process oil → fats making margarine Sodium hydroxide used to make soap, bleach and paper pulp
5.9.2 concentrated brine= sodium chloride solution

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