Chemistry Facts

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Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

A Levels Chemistry Mind Map on Chemistry Facts, created by beth2384 on 05/31/2013.

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beth2384
Created by beth2384 about 6 years ago
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Chemistry Facts
1 1 Principles of Chemistry
1.1 mass of particles
1.1.1 proton= 1
1.1.2 neutron= 1
1.1.3 electron= 1/1836
1.1.4 charge of particles
1.1.4.1 neutron= 0
1.1.4.2 proton= +1
1.1.4.3 electron= -1
1.2 isotopes
1.2.1 same number of protons, different number of electrons
1.3 Electrolysis
1.3.1 molten lead bromide
1.3.1.1 cathode -
1.3.1.1.1 Pb²⁺ + 2e⁻ → Pb
1.3.1.2 anode +
1.3.1.2.1 2Br⁻ → Br₂ + 2e⁻
1.3.2 of aqueous solutions
1.3.2.1 Sulphuric acid
1.3.2.1.1 cathode -
1.3.2.1.1.1 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ → H₂
1.3.2.1.2 anode +
1.3.2.1.2.1 4OH⁻ → O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻
1.3.2.2 Sodium Chloride
1.3.2.2.1 cathode -
1.3.2.2.1.1 2H⁺ + 2e⁻ → H₂
1.3.2.2.2 anode +
1.3.2.2.2.1 2Cl⁻ → Cl₂ + 2e⁻
1.3.2.3 Copper (ii) sulphate
1.3.2.3.1 cathode -
1.3.2.3.1.1 Cu²⁺ + 2e⁻ → Cu
1.3.2.3.2 anode +
1.3.2.3.2.1 4OH⁻ → O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻
1.3.2.4 cathode- hydrogen unless metal ion is less reactive
1.3.2.5 anode- hydroxide unless halide ions present
1.4 Electrolysis- calculating masses
1.4.1 charge= current x time
1.4.2 96,000 Coulombs= 1 faraday = one mole of electrons
2 2 Chemistry of the Elements
2.1 Group 1
2.1.1 more reactive down the group
2.1.2 metal + water → metalhydroxide hydrogen
2.2 Group 7
2.2.1 The Halogens
2.2.2 Chlorine
2.2.2.1 green gas
2.2.2.1.1 colourless in water
2.2.3 Bromine
2.2.3.1 red-brown liquid
2.2.3.1.1 orange in water
2.2.4 Iodine
2.2.4.1 dark grey solid
2.2.4.1.1 brown in water
2.2.5 more reactive up the group
2.2.6 Hydrogen chloride gas dissociates in water but not in methylbenzene
2.2.7 halogens displace eachother
2.3 reactions of metals
2.3.1 metal + acid → salt + hydrogen
2.3.1.1 MASH
2.4 reactivity series
2.4.1 Potassium
2.4.1.1 Sodium
2.4.1.1.1 Lithium
2.4.1.1.1.1 Calcium
2.4.1.1.1.1.1 Magnesium
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Aluminium
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 (Carbon)
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Zinc
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Iron
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 (Hydrogen)
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Copper
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Silver
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Gold
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Goats
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Some
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Coz of
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Hiding
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Into
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Zebras
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Counting
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 About
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.2 Made
2.4.1.1.1.1.2 Calculation
2.4.1.1.1.2 Little
2.4.1.1.2 Simple
2.4.1.2 Perfectly
2.5 Iron
2.5.1 iron + oxygen + water → hydrate iron (iii) oxide (rust)
2.6 TESTS- see tests sheet
2.7 Oxygen in reactions
2.7.1 making O₂ in the labs
2.7.1.1 decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)
2.7.1.1.1 manganese (iv) oxide catalyst
2.7.1.1.2 2H₂O₂ → 2H₂O + O₂
2.7.2 Burning with oxygen
2.7.2.1 Magnesium
2.7.2.1.1 white flame
2.7.2.1.2 magnesium oxide forms
2.7.2.1.2.1 alkaline when dissolved in water
2.7.2.2 Carbon
2.7.2.2.1 orange yellow flame
2.7.2.2.2 carbon dioxide forms
2.7.2.2.2.1 slightly acidic when dissolved in water
2.7.2.3 Sulphur
2.7.2.3.1 pale blue flame
2.7.2.3.2 sulphur dioxide forms
2.7.2.3.2.1 acidic when dissolved in water
2.8 making CO₂ in the lab
2.8.1 HCl + CaCO₃ → CaCl₂ + H₂O +CO₂
2.8.1.1 (hydrochloric acid and limestone)
2.8.2 thermal decomposition of metal carbonates
2.8.2.1 e.g. copper (ii) carbonate
2.8.2.1.1 green copper (ii) carbonate →black copper (ii) oxide
2.8.3 used in fizzy drinks and fire extinguishers
3 3 Organic Chemistry
3.1 alkanes
3.1.1 order...
3.1.1.1 methane
3.1.1.1.1 CH₄
3.1.1.1.2 ethane
3.1.1.1.2.1 propane
3.1.1.1.2.1.1 butane
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 pentane
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 C₅H₁₂
3.1.1.1.2.1.1.2 C₄H₁₀
3.1.1.1.2.1.2 C₃H₈
3.1.1.1.2.2 C₂H₆
3.1.2 CₓH₂ₓ₊₂
3.1.3 complete combustion
3.1.3.1 alkane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
3.1.4 incomplete combustion
3.1.4.1 alkane + oxygen → carbon + carbon monoixde + water (+energy)
3.1.5 react with halogens to make haloalkanes
3.1.5.1 UV needed
3.1.5.2 alkane + 'bromine' → 'bromo'methane +hydrogen'bromide'
3.2 alkenes
3.2.1 order...
3.2.1.1 ethene
3.2.1.1.1 propene
3.2.1.1.1.1 butene
3.2.1.1.1.1.1 C₄H₈
3.2.1.1.1.2 C₃H₆
3.2.1.1.2 C₂H₄
3.2.2 CₓH₂ₓ
3.2.3 react with halogens to make haloalkanes
3.2.3.1 shake with bromine water, orange → colourless (test for alkenes)
3.2.3.2 ethene + 'bromine' → di'bromo'ethane
3.2.3.2.1 'di' because there are two bromine atoms
3.3 Ethanol production
3.3.1 Fermentation
3.3.1.1 impure
3.3.1.2 slow
3.3.1.3 batch
3.3.1.4 sugar= a renewable resource
3.3.2 steam + ethene
3.3.2.1 conditions
3.3.2.1.1 phosphoric acid
3.3.2.1.2 300°C
3.3.2.1.3 60-70atmospheres
3.3.2.2 pure
3.3.2.3 fast
3.3.2.4 continuous
3.3.2.5 C₂H₄ + H₂O → C₂H₅OH
3.3.2.5.1 (reversible)
3.3.2.6 ethene= a nonrenewable resource
3.3.3 dehydrating ethanol
3.3.3.1 remove water
3.3.3.2 hot catalyst of Al₂O₃ (aluminium oxide)
4 4 Physical Chemistry
4.1 Indicators
4.1.1 phenolphthalein
4.1.1.1 acids- colourless
4.1.1.2 alkalis- bright pink
4.1.2 methyl orange
4.1.2.1 acids- yellow
4.1.2.2 alkalis- red
4.1.3 litmus
4.1.3.1 acids- red
4.1.3.2 neutral- purple
4.1.3.3 alkalis- blue
4.2 reactions of acids
4.2.1 acid + metal oxide → salt + water
4.2.2 acid + metal carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide
4.3 energy transfer
4.3.1 EXOTHERMIC
4.3.1.1 heat given out
4.3.1.1.1 temp increase
4.3.1.2 bonds broken
4.3.1.3 energy loss
4.3.2 ENDOTHERMIC
4.3.2.1 bonds formed
4.3.2.2 heat taken in
4.3.2.2.1 temp decrease
4.3.2.3 energy gain
5 5 Chemistry in Industry
5.1 Extracting Aluminium
5.1.1 Cryolite
5.1.1.1 900 °C
5.1.2 aluminium uses
5.1.2.1 aircraft bodies
5.1.2.1.1 property: low density
5.1.3 electrolysis
5.2 Extracting Iron
5.2.1 C + O₂ → CO₂
5.2.1.1 CO₂ + C → 2CO
5.2.1.1.1 3CO + Fe₂O₃ → 3CO₂ + 2Fe
5.2.1.2 temp raised to 1500°C
5.2.2 iron is molten and dense when formed
5.2.3 removing impuritites
5.2.3.1 main impurity is sand (silicon dioxide)
5.2.3.1.1 limestone removes it
5.2.3.2 CaCO₃ → CaO + CO₂
5.2.3.2.1 CaO + SiO₂ → CaSiO₃
5.2.3.2.1.1 molten slag forms
5.2.3.2.1.1.1 cooled solid slag used for road-building and fertilisers
5.2.3.2.2 limestone decomposed by heat
5.2.4 iron uses
5.2.4.1 ornamental gates
5.2.4.1.1 property: malleable
5.2.5 blast furnace
5.3 fractional distillation
5.3.1 fractions
5.3.1.1 bitumen
5.3.1.1.1 Fuel Oil
5.3.1.1.1.1 Diesel
5.3.1.1.1.1.1 Kerosene
5.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Naptha
5.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 'Chemical feedstock'
5.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Gasoline
5.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 refinery gases
5.3.2 uses
5.3.2.1 road surfacing, asphalt for roofs
5.3.2.1.1 domestic central heating, fuel for big ships
5.3.2.1.1.1 diesel engined cars, lorries, trains
5.3.2.1.1.1.1 jet engines, pain solvents
5.3.2.1.1.1.1.1 making plastics, dyes, drugs, explosives, paints
5.3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 fuel for cars
5.3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 bottled gas, making glass, pottery
5.4 pollutants
5.4.1 acid rain is caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
5.5 Cracking
5.5.1 conditions
5.5.1.1 catalyst: silica or alumina
5.5.1.2 temp: 600-700°C
5.6 polymerisation
5.6.1 uses of polymers
5.6.1.1 poly(ethene)
5.6.1.1.1 plastic bags
5.6.1.2 poly(propene)
5.6.1.2.1 kettles, food containers, carpets
5.6.1.3 poly(chloroethene)
5.6.1.3.1 insulating electrical cables, clothes, pipes
5.7 The Haber Process
5.7.1 making Ammonia
5.7.1.1 Uses
5.7.1.1.1 making nitric acid
5.7.1.1.2 making ammonium nitrate fertilisers
5.7.2 source of reactants
5.7.2.1 nitrogen from air
5.7.2.2 hydrogen from natural gases
5.7.3 conditions
5.7.3.1 450°C
5.7.3.2 200atmospheres
5.7.3.3 iron catalyst
5.8 The Contact Process
5.8.1 making sulphuric acid
5.8.1.1 S + O₂ → SO₂
5.8.1.1.1 2SO₂ + O₂<->2SO₃
5.8.1.1.1.1 SO₃+ H₂SO₄ → H₂S₂O₇
5.8.1.1.1.1.1 H₂S₂O₇ + H₂O → 2H₂SO₄
5.8.1.1.1.1.1.1 OLEUM is diluted forming concentrated sulphuric acid
5.8.1.1.1.1.2 sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form liquid OLEUM
5.8.1.1.1.2 reversable reaction
5.8.2 conditions
5.8.2.1 2atmospheres
5.8.2.2 450°C
5.8.2.3 vanadium (V) oxide
5.8.3 99% yield
5.8.4 happens quickly
5.8.5 uses
5.8.5.1 (phosphate) fertilisers
5.8.5.2 detergents (cleaning)
5.8.5.3 makes a white pigment used in paint
5.9 electrolysis of brine
5.9.1 products and their uses
5.9.1.1 Chlorine
5.9.1.1.1 making bleach and HCl
5.9.1.1.2 sterilising water supplies
5.9.1.2 Hydrogen
5.9.1.2.1 Haber Process
5.9.1.2.2 oil → fats making margarine
5.9.1.3 Sodium hydroxide
5.9.1.3.1 used to make soap, bleach and paper pulp
5.9.2 concentrated brine= sodium chloride solution

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