Alfie Ross
Mind Map by Alfie Ross, updated more than 1 year ago
Alfie Ross
Created by Alfie Ross almost 7 years ago


GCSE Biology Mind Map on Biology, created by Alfie Ross on 06/01/2013.

Resource summary

1 Health
1.1 Diet
1.1.1 Balance Protein Fats Carbohydrates
1.2 Excercise
1.2.1 Metabolic rate Speed at which you use energy Affected by gender Affected by weight Affected by age Affected by genetics
1.3 illness
1.3.1 Bacteria Antibiotics Kill/prevent growth of bacteria Alexander Flemming discovered penicillin in 1928 Penicillin Breaks down cell walls eryothromicin Stops protein synthesis ciprofolxacin Prevents DNA replication MRSA Uh-oh Some bacteria grow RESISTANT Antibiotics kill weak bacteria, strong ones live on and reproduce Population increases Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics ALWAYS finish course Infections Food poisoning Cholera Whooping cough Typhoid Bacteria can be grown in labs In petri dishes Grown in nutrient agar Jelly
1.3.2 Viruses Reproduce inside cells, Burst cells, take over other cells Influenza Colds/Flus Measles, Mumps and Rubella Chicken Pox Aids
1.3.3 Immunity Vaccinations Involves putting small amount of inactive pathogen into body Pathogens may be treated, dead, or just such a tiny amount it is harmless Inactive pathogen acts as antigen Body is stimulated to create antibodies If body is later affected by similar pathogen, specific antibodies ready made Speeds up killing of pathogens If people are vaccinated, they are immunised Prevents spreading of disease Defence White Blood Cells Ingest pathogens Produce antibodies specific to pathogen Produce antitoxins to counteract toxins from pathrogens Antibodies Pathogens produce antigens- chemicals foreign to body Lymphocites produce antibodies Antibodies bind to pathogens and destroy them Antibodies coat pathogens to make them ingestible by Phagocytes Phagocytes and Lymphocytes are white blood cells Antigens stimulate body to create antibodies Hygeine Ignaz semelweiss Discovers importance of washing hands in hopsitals
2 Hormones and nervous system
2.1 Nerves
2.1.1 Receptors Detect stimuli Sensitive to chnages in environment
2.1.2 Central Nervous System Brain and Spine Receptor is stimulated Sensory neurones carry signals to CNS Relay neurones carry signals around CNS Motor neurones carry from CNS to effectors
2.2 Hormones
2.2.1 Homeostasis Maintenance of a constant internal environment In plants Phototropism Positive- grows towards light Negatvie - grows away from light This is because of gravitropism Auxins make things grow longer In a plant, auxins are found in the shaded side of the stem Shaded side grows longer than lite side PLant grows towards light PLant hormones can be used as weed killers They speed up growth The weed grows too much and dies
2.2.2 Different parts of body produce hormones for Homeostasis FSH- causes egg to mature in womb and stimulates oestrogen release Oestrogen- stops FSH so only one egg per cycle and stimulates LH release LH gets rid of mature egg from ovary 'The pill' controls contraceptive hormones Increase in oestrogen levels prevents eggs forming
3 Adaptations
3.1 Environment
3.1.1 Large area keeps you cool
3.1.2 Large volume keeps you warm
3.1.3 Lichens Crusty lichens can survive in polluted areas Bushy lichens need clean air
3.1.4 Water pollution Can be detected by observing types of animals there Animals less used to polluted environment wil be found in clean water
3.2 Food Chains
3.2.1 More Prey= More food= More predators=Less Prey=Less Predators=More Prey
3.2.2 Producers (planst) Primary Consumers (Sheep) Secondary consumers (lions) predators can also be prey Energy decreases as you go up the food chain used in respiration Lost in waste- poo Biomass also decreases e.g. 1000 caterpillars weigh less than the single tree they feed off prey
3.2.3 Scavengers- eat already dead
4 Drugs
4.1 testing
4.1.1 tested on cells in labs
4.1.2 Tested on animals
4.1.3 Clinical trials Double blind trials Use placebo (fake) pills ensure effect is not psycological
4.2 Thalidomide
4.2.1 Morning sickness pill
4.2.2 caused birth defects
4.2.3 now used for leprosy
5 Evolution
5.1 Darwin's 'opposition' was Lamark
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