Biology

Alfie Ross
Mind Map by Alfie Ross, updated more than 1 year ago
Alfie Ross
Created by Alfie Ross almost 7 years ago
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GCSE Biology Mind Map on Biology, created by Alfie Ross on 06/01/2013.
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Biology
1 Health
1.1 Diet
1.1.1 Balance
1.1.1.1 Protein
1.1.1.2 Fats
1.1.1.3 Carbohydrates
1.2 Excercise
1.2.1 Metabolic rate
1.2.1.1 Speed at which you use energy
1.2.1.1.1 Affected by gender
1.2.1.1.2 Affected by weight
1.2.1.1.3 Affected by age
1.2.1.1.4 Affected by genetics
1.3 illness
1.3.1 Bacteria
1.3.1.1 Antibiotics
1.3.1.1.1 Kill/prevent growth of bacteria
1.3.1.1.1.1 Alexander Flemming discovered penicillin in 1928
1.3.1.1.1.2 Penicillin
1.3.1.1.1.2.1 Breaks down cell walls
1.3.1.1.1.3 eryothromicin
1.3.1.1.1.3.1 Stops protein synthesis
1.3.1.1.1.4 ciprofolxacin
1.3.1.1.1.4.1 Prevents DNA replication
1.3.1.1.1.5 MRSA
1.3.1.1.1.5.1 Uh-oh
1.3.1.1.1.5.1.1 Some bacteria grow RESISTANT
1.3.1.1.1.5.1.1.1 Antibiotics kill weak bacteria, strong ones live on and reproduce
1.3.1.1.1.5.1.1.1.1 Population increases
1.3.1.1.1.5.1.1.1.2 Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics
1.3.1.1.1.5.1.1.1.2.1 ALWAYS finish course
1.3.1.2 Infections
1.3.1.2.1 Food poisoning
1.3.1.2.2 Cholera
1.3.1.2.3 Whooping cough
1.3.1.2.4 Typhoid
1.3.1.3 Bacteria can be grown in labs
1.3.1.3.1 In petri dishes
1.3.1.3.2 Grown in nutrient agar Jelly
1.3.2 Viruses
1.3.2.1 Reproduce inside cells, Burst cells, take over other cells
1.3.2.2 Influenza
1.3.2.3 Colds/Flus
1.3.2.4 Measles, Mumps and Rubella
1.3.2.5 Chicken Pox
1.3.2.6 Aids
1.3.3 Immunity
1.3.3.1 Vaccinations
1.3.3.1.1 Involves putting small amount of inactive pathogen into body
1.3.3.1.1.1 Pathogens may be treated, dead, or just such a tiny amount it is harmless
1.3.3.1.1.2 Inactive pathogen acts as antigen
1.3.3.1.1.2.1 Body is stimulated to create antibodies
1.3.3.1.1.2.2 If body is later affected by similar pathogen, specific antibodies ready made
1.3.3.1.1.2.3 Speeds up killing of pathogens
1.3.3.1.1.3 If people are vaccinated, they are immunised
1.3.3.1.1.3.1 Prevents spreading of disease
1.3.3.2 Defence
1.3.3.2.1 White Blood Cells
1.3.3.2.1.1 Ingest pathogens
1.3.3.2.1.2 Produce antibodies specific to pathogen
1.3.3.2.1.3 Produce antitoxins to counteract toxins from pathrogens
1.3.3.2.2 Antibodies
1.3.3.2.2.1 Pathogens produce antigens- chemicals foreign to body
1.3.3.2.2.1.1 Lymphocites produce antibodies
1.3.3.2.2.1.1.1 Antibodies bind to pathogens and destroy them
1.3.3.2.2.1.1.2 Antibodies coat pathogens to make them ingestible by Phagocytes
1.3.3.2.2.1.1.3 Phagocytes and Lymphocytes are white blood cells
1.3.3.2.2.1.2 Antigens stimulate body to create antibodies
1.3.3.2.3 Hygeine
1.3.3.2.3.1 Ignaz semelweiss
1.3.3.2.3.1.1 Discovers importance of washing hands in hopsitals
2 Hormones and nervous system
2.1 Nerves
2.1.1 Receptors
2.1.1.1 Detect stimuli
2.1.1.2 Sensitive to chnages in environment
2.1.2 Central Nervous System
2.1.2.1 Brain and Spine
2.1.2.2 Receptor is stimulated
2.1.2.2.1 Sensory neurones carry signals to CNS
2.1.2.2.1.1 Relay neurones carry signals around CNS
2.1.2.2.1.1.1 Motor neurones carry from CNS to effectors
2.2 Hormones
2.2.1 Homeostasis
2.2.1.1 Maintenance of a constant internal environment
2.2.1.2 In plants
2.2.1.2.1 Phototropism
2.2.1.2.1.1 Positive- grows towards light
2.2.1.2.1.2 Negatvie - grows away from light
2.2.1.2.1.2.1 This is because of gravitropism
2.2.1.2.1.3 Auxins make things grow longer
2.2.1.2.1.3.1 In a plant, auxins are found in the shaded side of the stem
2.2.1.2.1.3.2 Shaded side grows longer than lite side
2.2.1.2.1.3.3 PLant grows towards light
2.2.1.2.2 PLant hormones can be used as weed killers
2.2.1.2.2.1 They speed up growth
2.2.1.2.2.2 The weed grows too much and dies
2.2.2 Different parts of body produce hormones for Homeostasis
2.2.2.1 FSH- causes egg to mature in womb and stimulates oestrogen release
2.2.2.2 Oestrogen- stops FSH so only one egg per cycle and stimulates LH release
2.2.2.3 LH gets rid of mature egg from ovary
2.2.2.3.1 'The pill' controls contraceptive hormones
2.2.2.3.1.1 Increase in oestrogen levels prevents eggs forming
3 Adaptations
3.1 Environment
3.1.1 Large area keeps you cool
3.1.2 Large volume keeps you warm
3.1.3 Lichens
3.1.3.1 Crusty lichens can survive in polluted areas
3.1.3.2 Bushy lichens need clean air
3.1.4 Water pollution
3.1.4.1 Can be detected by observing types of animals there
3.1.4.2 Animals less used to polluted environment wil be found in clean water
3.2 Food Chains
3.2.1 More Prey= More food= More predators=Less Prey=Less Predators=More Prey
3.2.2 Producers (planst)
3.2.2.1 Primary Consumers (Sheep)
3.2.2.1.1 Secondary consumers (lions)
3.2.2.1.1.1 predators
3.2.2.1.1.2 can also be prey
3.2.2.1.1.3 Energy decreases as you go up the food chain
3.2.2.1.1.3.1 used in respiration
3.2.2.1.1.3.2 Lost in waste- poo
3.2.2.1.1.3.3 Biomass also decreases
3.2.2.1.1.3.3.1 e.g. 1000 caterpillars weigh less than the single tree they feed off
3.2.2.1.2 prey
3.2.3 Scavengers- eat already dead
4 Drugs
4.1 testing
4.1.1 tested on cells in labs
4.1.2 Tested on animals
4.1.3 Clinical trials
4.1.3.1 Double blind trials
4.1.3.1.1 Use placebo (fake) pills
4.1.3.1.2 ensure effect is not psycological
4.2 Thalidomide
4.2.1 Morning sickness pill
4.2.2 caused birth defects
4.2.3 now used for leprosy
5 Evolution
5.1 Darwin's 'opposition' was Lamark
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