DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A level Biology (Nucleic acids) Mind Map on DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis, created by mbaker25 on 06/02/2013.

Created by mbaker25 over 6 years ago
DNA replication
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DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis
1 DNA Replication
1.1 1. The hydrogen bonds between the two polynucleotide DNA strands are broken by the enzyme DNA helicase
1.2 2. The original single strand acts a template for a new strand.
1.2.1 Free-floating DNA nucleotides are joined together by the enzyme DNA polymerase; hydrogen bonds form between the exposed bases following the base pairing rule.
1.3 Semi-conservative replication
2 DNA contains genes which are instructions for protein
2.1 A gene is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a protein
2.1.1 Protein are made from amino acids
2.1.2 Different proteins have a different number and order of amino acids It's the order of nucleotide bases in a gene that determines the order of amino acids in a particular protein
2.1.3 Each amino acid is coded for by a sequence of three bases in a gene Different sequences of bases code for different amino acids
3 Protein Synthesis
3.1 DNA carries the instructions to make proteins
3.2 Transcription
3.2.1 1.The hydrogens bonds between the two polynucleotide DNA strands are broken temporally by the enzyme DNA helicase
3.2.2 2. RNA polymerase reads the unzipped strand and produces mRNA
3.2.3 3. mRNA leaves the nucleus via the nuclear pores
3.3 DNA molecules are too large to move out of the nucleus
3.4 Translation
3.4.1 The process of converting mRNA codon into a sequence of amino acids
3.4.2 1. Initiation- A ribosome attaches to the mRNA usually AUG, sometimes GUG or UUG
3.4.3 2. Elongation- tRNA brings the corresponding amino acid to each codon as the ribosome moves down the mRNA strand
3.4.4 3. Termination- Reading of the final mRNA codon (aka the STOP codon), which ends the synthesis of the peptide chain and releases it.

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