Earth and Space Science: The Study of the Universe

Karen Peng
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

International Baccalaureate Math and Science (Science) Mind Map on Earth and Space Science: The Study of the Universe, created by Karen Peng on 06/02/2013.

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Karen Peng
Created by Karen Peng over 6 years ago
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Earth and Space Science: The Study of the Universe
1 Star
1.1 A hot ball of plasma, and electrically charged gas, that shines because nuclear fusions is taking place at its core
1.1.1 Nebula
1.1.1.1 Cloud of gas and dust in which stars are developed.
1.1.2 Supernova
1.1.2.1 Explosion of a star, collasped core, which is caused by the gradual build-up of heavy elements in the star's centre
1.1.3 Nuclear Fusion
1.1.3.1 The process in which the nuclei of atoms fuse together to form larger atoms which releases an enormous amount of energy
1.1.4 Solar system
1.1.4.1 The Sun together with all the planets and celestial objects held by the Sun's gravitational attraction
1.1.4.1.1 An astronomical unit(AU) equals the average distance between the Earth and the Sun
1.1.4.1.2 At a distance of 3AU from the Sun, there is a region of rocky debris called the asteroid belt consisting of pieces of rocks.
2 Properties of Galaxies
2.1 Black Hole
2.1.1 A region of space in the center of each galaxy where gravity is so strong that not even light can escape. It pulls a star in and destroys it, adding to its mass
2.2 Dark Matter
2.2.1 Matter that is invisible because it does not interact with light or any kind of radiation and has strong gravitational pull that keeps our universe together
2.3 Star Clusters
2.3.1 Open Cluster
2.3.1.1 Contains a few hundred to a few thousand stars which are the youngest stars in the universe
2.3.2 Globular Cluster
2.3.2.1 Contains hundreds of thousands of the oldest stars drawn together by the stars' gravity
3 Galaxy Shapes
3.1 Spiral
3.1.1 Spiral-shaped arms that radiate out from the galaxy's center and looks like a thin disk from the side. New arms are formed continually as older ones disappear or lose shape and make a full rotation every 300 million years.
3.2 Barred
3.2.1 About half of spiral galaxies have a bar across them which give them the name barred spiral.
3.3 Elliptical
3.3.1 Spherical, foot-ball shaped or cylindrical and extremely old stars resulted from merged galaxies.
3.4 Irregular
3.4.1 Distorted and nether spiral nor elliptical, resulted from collisions of galaxies and stars were drawn away
4 Big Bang Theory
4.1 There are many other galaxies beyond the Milky Way
4.2 Galaxies are constantly moving apart and the universe is expanding
4.2.1 Spectral Lines
4.2.1.1 Created as each gas that makes up a star absorbs some of the light energy. Each element has its specific pattern of spectral lines.
4.2.2 Spectral Shifting
4.2.2.1 Change in position of spectral lines to the left or right
4.2.2.1.1 Approaching star- blue(left) shift, short and compressed
4.2.2.1.2 Moving away star- red(right) shift, long and stretched out

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