Aspects of Personality

Mind Map by Hannah96, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Hannah96 over 5 years ago


A Levels PE Mind Map on Aspects of Personality, created by Hannah96 on 12/09/2014.

Resource summary

Aspects of Personality
1 Those relatively stable and enduring aspects of individuals which distinguish them from other people. Its their characteristics which make them unique.
1.1 Trait Theories
1.1.1 Represent the Nature approach. Suggest we are born with inherited characteristics which don't alter over time and which cause us to react in a similar fashion irrespective of the situation. Traits are seen to be stable and enduring. However the identification of personality traits may be useful to a coach in order to highlight potential difficulties an individual might encounter, and employ strategies to reduce any negative behaviour patterns that might arise.
1.1.2 This theory would allow us to predict behaviour patterns in all situations. It would help identify potential performers who could cope with the pressure of intense competition without becoming over aroused or aggressive.
1.1.3 Traits are measure using questionnaires. However patterns may alter from situation to situation. So using traits to predict personality is unreliable. And there are no common traits when trying to classify the characteristics required to perform at elite level.
1.1.4 Criticisms include: Its too simplistic, doesn't account for personality changing over time, doesn't account for environmental or situational factors, they aren't an accurate predictor of sporting preference, and they have a limited value as a predictor of sporting sucess.
2 Hollanders Structure of Personality
2.1 Role Related Behaviours
2.1.1 Refers to our behaviour at any given time depending on the specific circumstances and our perception at that time. Its the most changeable aspect of our personality. Might not be a true reflection of our psychological core.
2.2 Typical Responses
2.2.1 Represents our usual response to a situation which is often learned. It can be a good indicator of the psychological core. E.g. one may react to a defeat by training harder and viewing the experience in a positive manner, whereas someone else may let it get the better of them.
2.3 Psychological Core
2.3.1 Described as the 'real you'. It comprises your beliefs, values, attitudes and self worth, all of which are relatively permanent and tend to be resistant to change.
3 Narrow Band Approach
3.1 Recognises two distinct personality types.
3.1.1 Type A. Highly competitive, strong desire to succeed, works fast, likes to control, prone to suffer stress.
3.1.2 Type B. Non-competitive, unambitious, works more slowly, doesn't enjoy control, less prone to stress. Sven Goran Eriksson. He is more of a strategist, taking his time to work through things. As a result he works more slowly and is less prone to stress. Anna Kournikova. She appears to be less competitive as she concentrates on commercial modelling rather than tennis.
4 Cattell's Theory - 16 Personality Factors
4.1 Personality can be profiled into 16 categories which gives a more accurate picture of peoples characteristics and behaviour patterns. He measured these traits using the 16PF questionnaire, but accepted that responses may be different each time depending on motivation, mood and situational factors.
5 Eysenck's Personality Dimensions
5.1 Suggested that individuals possess stable traits based on two broad dimensions which are derived from biological factors.
5.1.1 Extravert-Introvert Dimension. Assumes that individuals attempt to maintain a certain level of arousal suitable for them. This level of arousal is controlled by the Reticular Activating System. Introvert. Needs less arousal and stimulation as their RAS is already stimulated and additional excitement will cause them to become over aroused. Extravert. Needs more arousal and stimulation as the RAS inhibits info received via the sensory system. It needs extra stimulation to maintain optimum levels of attention.
5.1.2 Stable-Neurotic Dimension. Based on emotionality and the reaction of the autonomic nervous system to stressful situations. Stable. Individuals tend to possess a fairly slow and less vigorous response to stressful situations. Neurotic. Individuals have a rapid reaction to stressful situations.
5.1.3 The two personality dimensions are independent of each other and an individual can be a combination of the differing traits.
5.1.4 Psychotism-Intelligence was later added. This relates to how far a person is prepared to conform to society's rules and conventions. It was later claimed that most elite performers possessed stable, extravert characteristics. Other claims included: extroverts would be more likely to play high action sports. Stable indiviudals were more likely to participate in sport compared to the general population. Introverts would be drawn to individual activities. However none of this has been proved conclusive.
6 Interactionist Approach
6.1 Proposes that personality is a mixture of inherited traits and a person's current situation. It was proposed by Bowers. It possesses greater validity as it explains why we alter our behaviour from one moment to the next. Its a combination of Trait Theory and Social Learning Theory.
6.2 The dominance of either the personality or the situation depends on their specific relative strength at that time.
6.2.1 For example, if the situational factors are strong, such as in a highly competitive match with a high extrinsic reward for success, these factors may be more influential on behaviour than personality.
6.3 Lewin B= F (PE) Behaviour, Function, Personality, Environment
6.4 Someones behaviour may change due to a crowd, or significant other watching, who the match or performance is against, and how important the final outcome is.
6.5 The coach will use this approach and attempt to identify characteristic behaviour patterns in specific situations. For example if a player becomes over aroused or aggressive in the final stages of a match, various stress management techniques can be developed. Or attempts can be made to alter behaviour patterns if they can pinpoint specific situations that have a negative impact on them.
7 Measurement of Personality
7.1 The two main ways of measuring personality is through observations or questionnaires. Self Report Q's such as the EPI, Cattells 16PF and the AMI are widely used because they are easy to administer, collection of data is straightforward, and large numbers can be accommodated in s short space of time.
7.1.1 However they have been criticised because they aren't really valid as there is no definition of personality. Reliability can be questioned as results may vary if repeated. Participants response may be affected by their mood, situation, attitude towards the test. Respondents may lie and give more socially accepted answers. Participants may not fully understand the question. Possible response answers such as 'yes' or 'no' may be too limited. Respondents should be fully informed about the questionnaire and made aware that they can withdraw at any time.
7.2 More psychologists now use more sport specific objective questionnaires such as the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2) as they provide more reliable evidence.
7.3 Observation techniques involve the performers behaviour being recorded in specific situations over a period of time. A personality profile can be constructed then. This method is useful however its time consumingand subjective.
7.4 Interviews can also be used, with a series of questions devised to reflect behaviour patterns in different situations. the Q's could be similar to the ones found in the EPI. The major problems with this method is the same for that of Questionnaires.
8 Profile of Mood States
8.1 Morgan (1979) mood states are more useful in the identification of successful athletes. Rather than stable personality traits being the most important factor, mood states are temporary and change with the situation. This could be seen as a better predictor of performance and behaviour.
8.2 McNair (1971) developed POMS which measures 6 mood states: tension, Depression, Anger, Vigour, Fatigue and Confusion
8.3 Morgan compared the mood states of various performers and suggested that to be a successful performer the score of vigour should be high, whilst tension, depression, fatigue and confusion scores should be lower.
8.3.1 Known as the Iceberg Profile.
8.4 There has been extensive research to support this suggestion. There is evidence demonstrating that it's possible to reach elite level without displaying the Iceberg profile. Others have mentioned that as success is achieved this contributes to a positive self image, high confidence levels, and positive mood states.
9 Personality and Sporting Performance
9.1 Key factors are; No clear link between personality type and success in sport, No clear link between personality and the choice of sport, Personality can be affected by the situation and the environment.
10 Theory of Achievement Motivation
10.1 Attempts to link personality with competitiveness and to explain why a performer may behave in a specific manner when faced with a particular task.
10.2 McCelland and Atkinson viewed AM as a stable aspect of personality. They suggested we all have two underlying motives when placed in a situation where some form of evaluation takes place.
10.2.1 The Need to Achieve They will display the following characteristics; a sense of pride from competing, perseverance, welcome feedback, quick completion of the task, optimism, confidence, take responsibility, attribute performance to internal factors, prepared to take ricks, enjoy being evaluated, they don't mind if they fail. Will tend to have a higher motive to achieve, tend to have approach behaviour patterns.
10.3 The Need to Avoid Failure
10.3.1 they will display the following characteristics; attempt to avoid humiliation, worry about failure, avoid situations with a 50/50 chance of success, choose tasks which are very easy or very hard, dislikes personal feedback, attributes performance to external factors, their performance tends to deteriorate when being evaluated, they give up easily.
10.3.2 Tend to have a higher motive to avoid failure, will have avoidance behaviour.
10.4 When faced with a competitive situation we make a decision based on the relative strengths of aspects of our personality.
10.4.1 Achievement Motivation = Desire to Succeed - Fear of Failure.
10.5 Level of achievement is a combination of personality and an evaluation of the situational factors.
10.5.1 Two Aspects; the probability of success, the incentive value of the success. Expressed as: (Motive to Succeed - Motive to avoid Failure) x (Probability of Success x {Incentive Value of Success - Probability of Success})
10.6 Evaluation Points. Its most useful when the task involves a 50/50 chance of success, 'Success' may mean different things for individuals, Measuring achievement motivation using attitudes and anxiety scales may be unreliable, Achievement Motivation isn't a global concept, No clear relationship between achievement motivation and performance has been established, however it is useful when attempting to predict long-term motivation.
11 Achievement Goal Theory
11.1 Suggests a performers level of achievement motivation will differ depending on the reasons for his or her participation, the goals set and the relative meanings of those goals.
11.1.1 Outcome Goal. A goal that is set to judge the performance of an individual against others and the end result. If the goal is realistic and within the performers capability, and they achieve the aim, motivation and feelings of pride and self-esteem are increased. However it can be demotivating if the performer is unsuccessful, especially after repeated attempts. The performer may feel shame and attribute the failure to their own ability, causing them to adopt avoidance behaviour patterns in the future.
11.2 Task-Orientated Goal. A goal that is used to judge the performance of the individual against their own standards, rather than in comparison with competitors. Foe example with a cyclist this could include; applying the tactics as agreed with the coach, using effective slipstreaming, comparing how close they were to a PB.
11.3 If the goal is realistic, the performer can evaluate their own actions, and not worry about comparison with others. This helps reduce anxiety, allowing them to remain motivated. This type of goal may be an effective method of developing a performer's approach behaviour and encouraging a positive motive to succeed.
12 Developing Approach Behaviour
12.1 Provide positive childhood experiences, and encourage feelings of pride through success.
12.2 Reduce punishment and negative feelings.
12.3 Gradually increase the task difficulty, but ensure that challenging tasks are set.
12.4 Cater for all levels of ability.
12.5 Raising levels of self efficacy and avoiding Learned Helplessness.
12.6 set appropriate goals.
12.7 Consider cultural differences.
12.8 Use attributions correctly.
12.9 Provide encouragement from significant others.
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