New Left Realism And New Right Realism!


Sociology Mind Map on New Left Realism And New Right Realism!, created by 06ballgo on 06/11/2013.
Mind Map by 06ballgo, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by 06ballgo almost 10 years ago

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New Left Realism And New Right Realism!
  1. Gilroy (1982) ~ The Myth Of Black Criminality ~ Writes as a new criminologist and explores what he calls the 'myth of black criminality. He argues that African Caribbean men are no more criminal than whites, but they are labelled by the police and courts and treated unfairly. ~ Even when young black men do break the law, it is best seen as a political act. in effect, they are fighting back against a racist white society and are continuing the battle against white society that started with the slave trade, the British Empire and colonialism. ~ Gilroy argues that the high unemployment rates of the 1980s led to a surplus population and that it was convenient for the authorities to focus on the myth of black crime, rather than their failure to ensure full employment!
    1. NEW LEFT REALISM: ~ Movement away from the notion of crime as a product of capitalism. Some new left realists express their concern that Marxism and the new criminology approaches have idealistic views of criminals as 'political revolutionaries' somehow fighting back against capitalism and racism. The New left is concerned about the social implications and the reduction of crime.
      1. YOUNG (1988) The Principle of Realism ~ Aetiological crisis (causation) The inability of theories to explain crime ~ Crisis of the penal system - inability of the system to reform offenders ~ Increased awareness of victimisation ~ Public criticism about the efficiency of the police.
        1. LEA AND YOUNG (1984) ~ What is to be done about law and order? ~ Crime is now a real problem with a fivefold increase in criminal activity ~ Between the 1960's and the 1980's even with the use of conservative law and order programmes crime is still increasing. ~ Crime hurts individuals, there appears to be less compassion in society and more concern with personal gain.
          1. NEW LEFT REALISM AND THE SQUARE OF CRIME ~ It is suggested within the broader parameters of new left realism that crime should be understood in terms of the four elements to which it is linked. Each element will contribute to a greater or lesser extent to the individuals experiences and perception of crime and the need to abide by the law!
            1. NEW RIGHT REALSIM ~ Right-wing views in relation to crime all tend to share some common ground. Firstly, they argue that criminals have made a rational choice to break the law (they were not forced to become criminals but have weighed up the pros and cons of their intended actions). Secondly, the role of government is not to eliminate the mythical 'root causes' of crime, such as poverty and educational underachievement, but to punish the criminal. Thirdly, humans are naturally selfish and greedy, and if they receive poor socialisation, crime will be the inevitable result ~ Crime can never be eliminated, merely reduced!
              1. MURRAY (1988) The Underclass ~ Murray has focused on the develoement of an underclass of single parent families dependent on the state welfare. He blames the children of these families for much of the delinquent behaviour. In short, children need two parents and role models. A single parent cannot provide adequate socialisation. ~ Right realists also argue that police need to be far tougher and adopt a zero tolerance approach to crime. Minor crimes as littering and graffiti need stamping on hard, and the police need to move in on groups if they look like they may cause trouble. (pessimistic) AO2 ~ Bit simplistic ~ Cant apply this to everyone ~ Doesn't consider different situation ~ sometimes its nothing to do with poor socialisation ~ Deterministic applying it to everyone say there greedy!
                1. SITUATIONAL MEASURES ~ Increasing the effort ~ Target hardening. access control. deflecting offenders, controlling facilitators ~ Marine application ~ Fencing off key areas ~ ID badges for users ~ Partial park closure no anchor markers ~ vessel and employee registration! ~ Increasing the risks ~ entry exist screening, formal surveillance, surveillance by employees, natural surveillance ~ Marine application ~ Harbour and jetty vessel checks, CCTV satellite photos vessel monitoring system, boat and aircraft patrolling, reporting by public users. ~ Reducing the rewards ~ Target removal, identifying property, removing inducements, rule setting. ~ Marine application ~ Preventing access to park, relocating species, Licensing of vessels fish tagging, interfering with markets/distribution channels, issuing permits and licensing!
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