1.1 Aquinas is the main supporter of this theory. Philosophers use his evidence of the rotation of the planets
to prove that there must be an intelligent being, God. He believed that the universes was so ordered and
regular, that to move inanimate objects, there must be a guiding hand to allow objects to achieve their end.
2.1 Formal Garden
2.1.1 A formal garden shows order and
regularity within its appearance.
Although we cannot always see the
gardener, we assume that (s)he exists
because the garden is so regular and
ordered. This is like the universe (the
garden) and God (the gardener). The
universe is so ordered and regular that
we assume there must be a
creator/designer. That designer is
God. This is true even though we
cannot see God.
2.2 Archer and
2.2.1 An arrow is an inanimate object, and
cannot move without an archer firing it
to allow it to achieve its end/purpose.
This is compared to the rotation and
movement of the planets.
2.3 Guiding Hand
2.3.1 Nature suggests a
realm of order, and
within in that things
seem to have a
purpose. For Aquinas,
anything which has a
purpose requires the
aid of a guiding hand to
allow it to reach its
end/purpose. Thus if
ordered, it must have a
guiding hand - God.
3.1.1 The planets are inanimate, and no human force could move them, yet they continue to
move constantly without fail. This shows that there must be some powerful, intelligent being
that is directing them towards their end/purpose (their motion). The only being powerful
enough is God. They move so orderly and regularly that it is impossible to have happened
by chance, it must have been created designedly. This would suggest that here is a God,
and he both created and designed the world.
3.2.1 Paley used astronomy, such as
Newton's Law of Motion and Gravity and
the rotation of the planets. These show
design and intelligence, but also order
and regularity. This means that it cannot
have come about by chance, so there
must be a God, who created the world.
4 William Paley
4.1 Paley is for design qua purpose,
but he found some evidence for
design qua regularity. However,
whilst Aquinas uses evidence of
order and regularity to prove that
there must be some kind of
'guiding hand' and intelligent
being to allow inanimate objects
to reach their end, Paley uses the
order and regularity to show that
the universe cannot have come
about by chance, there must be a