B5a - Skeletons

k m
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

gcse Biology Mind Map on B5a - Skeletons, created by k m on 06/13/2013.

k m
Created by k m over 6 years ago
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B5a - Skeletons
1 Types of skeleton
1.1 Internal Skeleton
1.1.1 provides framework and shape
1.1.2 grows with the body
1.1.3 attaches to muscles easily
1.1.4 has joints for flexibility
1.1.5 Humans made from bone and cartilage
1.1.6 Sharks made only of cartilage
1.2 External Skeleton
1.2.1 heavy
1.2.2 inflexible
1.2.3 made from chitin
1.2.4 must shed skeleton to grow
1.2.5 insects
1.3 No Skeleton
1.3.1 worms
1.3.2 jellyfish
2 Long Bones
2.1 have a hollow shaft
2.1.1 contains bone marrow and blood vessels
2.2 weigh less than other bones
2.3 stronger than other bones
2.4 head covered in cartilage
2.4.1 lubricate movement against other bones
3 Growing Bones
3.1 ossification
3.1.1 cartilage replaced by calcium and phosphorus salts
3.1.2 bones in a foetus are made from cartilage
3.1.3 makes the bones hard
3.2 the proportion of cartilage to bone can be used as a measure of growth
4 Broken Bones
4.1 simple fracture
4.1.1 clean break
4.2 greenstick fractures
4.2.1 does not break completely
4.3 compound fractures
4.3.1 broken bone breaks through muscle and skin
5 Joints
5.1 fixed joints
5.1.1 plates fused together skull
5.2 ball and socket joints
5.2.1 allow rotation hip and shoulder
5.3 Hinge joints
5.3.1 bend in one direction knee and elbow
6 The Arm
6.1 made from several bones and muscles
6.1.1 humerus, radius, ulna
6.1.2 biceps, triceps
6.2 antagonistic muscles
6.3 to bend the arm
6.3.1 biceps contracts, pulling on radius triceps relaxes

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