Generating Electricity + Alternative Fuels

Mind Map by timelord327, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by timelord327 over 5 years ago


Mind Map on Generating Electricity + Alternative Fuels, created by timelord327 on 09/26/2014.

Resource summary

Generating Electricity
1 Fossil Fuels
1.1 Fossil fuels are formed when animals and plants died millions of years ago and the biomass was compressed underground
1.1.1 These eventually form Natural Gas, Coal and Crude Oil
1.2 Gas Turbine
1.2.1 CCGT (Combined Cycle Gas Turbine) Power stations work by using any remaining waste gases to heat water into steam and turn a turbine. This is more efficient than normal Gas turbine power stations.
1.2.2 These work by burning natural gas and the hot waste gases spin a turbine
1.3 Steam Turbine
1.3.1 To get electricity from fossil fuels, you burn them. Using the heat they produce you boil water into steam (not just kettle steam but a high pressured monster) that quickly spins a turbine. This turns a Generator and generates electricity.
1.4 Coal isn't as productive when it's in lumps and so at some power stations they grind it into coal dust, which is more efficient.
1.5 Environmental Problems
1.5.1 All fossil fuels produce Carbon dioxide. This is harmful because it contributes to global warming. We try and stop it by capturing and storing it so it doesn't get released into the atmosphere.
1.5.2 Acid rain When coal is burnt it can produce sulphur dioxide, which can cause acid rain To stop this we can remove from the waste gases as well as remove it from the coal before it has been burnt Coal can also produce Nitrogen oxides when burnt, which also causes sulphur dioxide To decrease the amount released we can use furnaces that reduce the amount produced
1.5.3 When burning coal, smoke and dust is produced which is harmful to peoples health if inhaled We can remove it from waste gases to stop it from escaping into the air
2 Alternative Fuels
2.1 Nuclear
2.1.1 Nuclear Fission heats water which turns a turbine which, in turn, turns a generator which generates electricity
2.1.2 It uses Uranium or Plutonium as fuel however you don't burn it to release the energy. Instead the atoms split up in reactions called nuclear fission This doesn't release any toxic fumes and the fuel lasts for a very long time, although it will run out someday. However highly dangerous radioactive nuclear waste is created which have to be encased in concrete and left for a very long time.
2.2 Biofuels
2.2.1 Biofuels are made up of biological material made of recently dead things. These include plant material including wood as well as animal waste
2.2.2 They are burnt like fossil fuels however differ from them as fossil fuels have been compressed over millions of years whereas biofuels have just grown. Most biofuels attempt to be carbon neutral. This is when the amount of Carbon dioxide released is the same as the plant took in (when t'was alive) Most biofuels would be carbon neutral however transporting and growing (tractors etc.) the biofuel releases Carbon dioxide into the air
2.3 Solar Cells
2.3.1 Solar Panels differ from Solar Cells as they use the Sun's energy to heat water not provide electricity. These are useful however they don't provide heat at night.
2.3.2 These convert light energy into electrical energy
2.3.3 Useful as they can go on rooftops etc. but are expensive and don't work at night so could not replace fossil fuels.
2.4 Wind
2.4.1 These use the wind to turn a wind turbine which turns a generator housed at the top of the wind turbine structure
2.4.2 This method only works well when there is a strong wind and doesn't work at all when there isn't wind
2.5 Geothermal
2.5.1 Pipes are drilled into the ground, in volcanic areas, which allow for steam trapped underground to rise to the surface and turn turbines which turn generators.
2.5.2 The hot water can also be used to heat nearby homes however they have to be quite close to the site.
2.6 Water
2.6.1 Tidal These are used in river estuaries and build a wall with turbines fitted along it. When the tide goes in or out, the turbines move accordingly.
2.6.2 Wave These use the up and down motion of the waves to generate electricity thus only working well when there are big waves
2.6.3 Hydro Electric Dams built below reservoirs that lets water flow through water turbines and turn a generator
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