Science Exam

Reuben Udohaya
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

GCSE Science Mind Map on Science Exam, created by Reuben Udohaya on 06/22/2013.

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Reuben Udohaya
Created by Reuben Udohaya over 6 years ago
Edexcel Additional Science Biology Topic 1
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BIOLOGY B1 4
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Biology B1.1 - Genes
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Edexcel Biology chapter 1
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Science Exam
1 Human Health And Diet
1.1 Proteins
1.1.1 Amino Acids
1.1.2 Different levels of proteins are needed, for different energy usages and life styles
1.2 Carbohydrate
1.2.1 Glucose
1.2.1.1 Is needed in repiration
1.2.1.2 Respiration= carbohydrate+Oxygen=Carbon Dioxide + Water+ Energy
1.2.2 Main Energy source of the human body
1.2.3 Stored in the liver as glycogen
1.3 Fat
1.3.1 Fatty Acid/ Glycerol
1.3.1.1 Are stored as an energy reserve and an insulator
1.3.2 Stored under the skin and around the body as adipose tissue
1.4 RDA
1.4.1 Recommended Dietary Allowance
1.4.2 To calculate the EDA of how much protein it is 0.6*Weight
1.5 inflated stomach
1.5.1 Kwashiorkor
1.5.1.1 Malnutrition
1.5.1.2 Lack of protien
1.5.1.3 Low protein levels (low oncotic pressure)
1.5.1.4 With Low Protein the blood cannot hold fluid
1.5.1.4.1 It then leaks out as edema
1.5.1.5 Overpopulation
1.5.1.6 Not enough money to invest in agriculture
1.6 Edema
1.6.1 Fluid where it is not meant to be.In human body.
1.7 BMI
1.7.1 Body Mass Index
1.7.1.1 BMI measures the height to weight ratio
1.7.1.2 Underweight
1.7.1.3 Normal
1.7.1.4 Overweight
1.7.1.5 Obese
1.7.1.6 Very Obese
1.7.2 To calculate BMI it's the Weight / Height^2
1.8 The Normal Tempreature of the human body is 37C
1.9 Measuring Fitness
1.9.1 strength
1.9.2 Stamina
1.9.3 Flexibility
1.9.4 Agility
1.9.5 Speed
1.9.6 cardiovascular efficiency
1.10 Fitness
1.10.1 The Ability to do physical activities
1.11 Health
1.11.1 The amount of freedom from disease
2 Fitness And Health
2.1 Blood Pressure
2.1.1 mmHg
2.1.1.1 MilliMeters Mercury
2.1.2 Systolic
2.1.2.1 The Rate At Which The Heart Pumps Blood Around The Body
2.1.3 Diastolic
2.1.3.1 The Rest Rate Of The Heart
2.2 Fitness And Its Link To Blood Pressure
2.2.1 People who are fit normally have a normal systolic and diastolic pressure
2.2.2 The average blood pressure 120/80
2.3 Types Of Fitness
2.4 Heart Disease
2.4.1 Causes of Heart Disease
2.4.1.1 Cholesterol
2.4.1.1.1 Plaque
2.4.1.1.2 C27H46O
2.4.1.1.3 Also Known As Lipid
2.4.1.1.4 A Fatty Substance
2.4.1.1.5 Important for the normal functioning of body
2.4.1.1.6 Made in the liver
2.4.1.1.7 Hyperlipidemia
2.4.1.1.7.1 Excessive amounts of lipids in blood
2.4.1.1.7.2 Causes Health Problem
2.4.1.1.7.3 On its own isn't enough to cause symptoms
2.4.1.1.8 Carried in blood by protiens
2.4.1.1.9 LDL
2.4.1.1.9.1 Low Density Lipoprotien
2.4.1.1.9.2 These carry lipoprotiens to the cells that need them
2.4.1.1.9.3 It can build up on artery walls
2.4.1.1.9.3.1 This means a higher risk
2.4.1.1.9.4 Known As Bad Cholesterol
2.4.1.1.10 HDL
2.4.1.1.10.1 High Density Lipoprotien
2.4.1.1.10.2 HDL carries cholesterol back to the liver
2.4.1.1.10.3 Once carried back to the liver it is either broken down or becomes a waste product
2.4.1.1.11 Lipoprotiens
2.4.1.1.12 Illness
2.4.1.1.12.1 Stroke
2.4.1.1.12.1.1 Mini Stroke
2.4.1.1.12.2 Heart Attack
2.4.1.1.12.3 Narrowing Arteries
2.4.1.1.12.3.1 Atherosclerosis
2.4.1.2 Eating over the GDA of salt, over a prelonged period
2.4.1.2.1 4 grams of salt for children dailey
2.4.1.2.2 6 grams for adults dailey
2.4.1.3 Thrombosis
2.4.1.3.1 Blood Clotting in Vein Or Artery
2.4.1.3.2 Stroke
2.4.1.3.2.1 When the blood flow of the brain is affected
2.4.1.3.3 Heart Attack
2.4.1.3.3.1 When the blood flow of the heart is affected
2.4.1.3.4 peripheral arterial disease
2.4.1.3.4.1 Blood clotting involving the legs
2.4.1.4 Smoking
2.4.1.4.1 Carbon Monoxide
2.4.1.4.2 Nicotine
2.4.1.4.2.1 The addictive substance in cigarettes
2.4.1.4.2.2 Increases the heart rate
2.4.1.4.2.3 Lessens the amount of HDL
2.4.1.4.2.4 Causes Adrenaline to be released, and so increasing the heart rate
2.4.1.5 Carbon Monoxide
2.4.1.5.1 Causes direct damage to the heart
2.4.1.5.2 Permantly Impears Cardiac Function
2.4.1.5.3 Lowers the oxygen capacity of the blood
2.4.1.5.3.1 It combines with Haemoglobin to compensate for the oxygen reduction, it also increases the heart rate
2.5 Staying Healthy
2.5.1 Pathogens
2.5.1.1 Virus
2.5.1.1.1 Are not alive, need a cell to multiply within. These can also infect bacteria.
2.5.1.1.2 The structure of a virus consist of
2.5.1.1.2.1 Nucleic acid
2.5.1.1.2.1.1 Contains the information to help the virus multiply
2.5.1.1.2.1.2 Makes the virus unique.
2.5.1.1.2.2 Lipid membrane
2.5.1.1.2.2.1 Covers the protein coat /or/ capsid, however many virus don't have thid
2.5.1.1.2.3 Protein Coat
2.5.1.1.2.3.1 This is a covering over the nucleic acid to protect it
2.5.1.1.3 Virus need the cell to multiply as they do not have any machinery on their own, so they must seek a cell to take over.
2.5.1.1.4 The Virus attaches it self to a receptor on the cell surface, each virus has a different preferred receptor
2.5.1.1.5 Stages
2.5.1.1.5.1 1.Virus attaches to cell this is called absorption
2.5.1.1.5.2 2.It injects its DNA or RNA into the cell this known as entry
2.5.1.1.5.3 3.The DNA or RNA takes control of the cell and begins to gather eynzems
2.5.1.1.5.4 4. The enzymes would start making replication of the virus
2.5.1.1.5.5 5. The virus of in the cell come together to form new virus, this is called assembly
2.5.1.1.5.6 6. The host is killed by the virus and the virus is released to look for another potential host cell. This is called Release
2.5.1.1.6 German measles
2.5.1.1.7 Chickenpox
2.5.1.2 Protozoa
2.5.1.2.1 Single celled eukaryotes, or an organism whose cells have nuclei.
2.5.1.2.2 Are sometimes carried by vectors such as mosquito
2.5.1.2.3 Malaria stages
2.5.1.2.3.1 1). Mosquito bite human and passes on plasmoduim
2.5.1.2.3.2 2).Plasmodium gets into the liver and reproduces, then enters red blood cells and reproduces again
2.5.1.2.3.2.1 3). Some red blood cells burst causing the symptoms, chill and fever
2.5.1.2.3.2.1.1 4).Another mosquito feeds and the plasmodium is passed on again
2.5.1.2.3.3 Mefloquine hydrochloride , also known as lariam
2.5.1.2.4 Heterotrophs
2.5.1.2.4.1 Eat other organisms/ do not produce their own food
2.5.1.2.5 Live in moist enviorments
2.5.1.2.6 Amoeba
2.5.1.2.6.1 When it feeds produces Pseudopods, which extend to engulf the food.
2.5.1.2.7 Ciliates
2.5.1.2.7.1 Ciliates use tiny little hair, cillia to move backward and forwards this is called Paramecuim
2.5.1.3 Fungi
2.5.1.3.1 Ringworm
2.5.1.3.2 any unicellular, multicellular, or syncytial spore producing organisms feeding on organic matter
2.5.1.4 Bacteria
2.5.1.4.1 components
2.5.1.4.1.1 Basal Body
2.5.1.4.1.1.1 This anchors the base of the flagellum allowing to rotate
2.5.1.4.1.2 Capsule
2.5.1.4.1.2.1 A protective layer outside the cell wall/sometimes.
2.5.1.4.1.3 Cell Wall
2.5.1.4.1.3.1 A thin layer of membrane in which is sandwiched between the capsule and the plasma membrane
2.5.1.4.1.4 DNA
2.5.1.4.1.4.1 Contains information on that is used in bacteria development
2.5.1.4.1.5 A genetic material with ribosomes inside
2.5.1.4.1.6 Flagellum
2.5.1.4.1.6.1 This is used for movement to propel the cells. some bacteria have more then one.
2.5.1.4.1.7 Pili
2.5.1.4.1.7.1 Spikes that allow the cell to stick to surfaces and transfer genetic material to other cells
2.5.1.4.1.8 Plasma membrane
2.5.1.4.1.8.1 Generates energy and transports chemicals. Substances can pass through the membrane .
2.5.1.4.1.9 Ribosomes
2.5.1.4.1.9.1 RNA
2.5.1.4.2 Whooping Cough
2.5.1.4.3 Bubonic Plague
2.5.1.5 A pathogen is an organism in which causes a disease
2.5.2 Disease
2.5.2.1 Scurvy is caused by lack of vitamin D
2.5.2.2 anaemia is caused by lack of iron
2.5.2.3 Cancer occurs when cells divide out of control.
2.5.2.4 Cancer Tumours can be malignant
2.5.2.4.1 Grow faster
2.5.3 Blood Clotting
2.5.3.1 When skin is penetrated blood rushes out and soon after pallets are meshed to the red blood cells with fibrin
2.5.4 Mucus
2.5.4.1 Traps dust and microbes
2.5.4.2 pushed up the throat by cillia
2.5.5 Hydrochloric acid
2.5.5.1 Kills bacteria in stomach
2.5.6 White Blood cells
2.5.6.1 Engulf pathogen
2.5.6.2 Produce antitoxin
2.5.6.3 Produce antibodies
2.5.6.4 White Blood cells remain so that if the same pathogen comes again it would be able to fight it off.
2.5.6.4.1 This is active immunity because you make your own antibodies.
2.5.6.4.2 Sometimes you may need drugs to fight the pathogen this is passive immunity
2.5.7 testing drugs
2.5.7.1 1). tested in laboratory and computer modelled
2.5.7.2 2).if it pass the first stage it can be tested on animals.
2.5.7.3 3). Clinical trials
2.5.7.4 Double blind trials
2.5.7.4.1 One patient is given a placebo the other the real drug
2.5.8 Immunisation
2.5.8.1 Different vaccinations are given for a different pathogen
2.5.8.2 Live pathogens made harmless
2.5.8.3 Harmless bits of the pathogen
2.5.8.4 Dead Pathogens
2.5.8.5 toxins produced by pathogens
2.5.8.6 These in turn would stimulate the white blood cells, so if someone get this pathogen in future they will be able to fight it off
2.5.8.7 Some pathogens are resistant to antibiotics such as MRSA is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
2.5.8.7.1 To stop the resistance we need to not use antibiotics unnecessary and complete treatment
3 The Nervous System
3.1 Multicellular organism use a nervous system to communitcate
3.2 Nervous system use electrical impulse
3.3 CNS
3.3.1 Central Nervous System
3.3.1.1 This is made up of the brain and the spinal cord
3.4 Nerve cells are neurones
3.5 Neurones
3.5.1 Axon
3.5.1.1 Axons are fibers which carry neural signal the, the larger the axon the quicker the signal is transmitted
3.5.1.2 Axons are covered in a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator
3.5.1.2.1 May or may not have covering
3.5.1.2.2 Insulated axons carry information quicker
3.5.1.3 Most Neurons only have one axon
3.5.2 Nucleus
3.5.2.1 Contains genetic information. Chromosomes.
3.5.3 Nucleolus
3.5.3.1 produces ribosomes necessary for translation of genetic information into proteins
3.5.4 Dendrite
3.5.4.1 Dendrites carry electrical signals to the cell body
3.5.5 Motor
3.5.5.1 This moves the arm as an automatic reaction to the change or source of pain
3.5.6 Relay
3.5.6.1 After the sensory being stimulated, the relay would then send the signal to the brain and then send the command from the brain to the motor
3.5.6.2 Or it could be found in the spinal cord
3.5.7 Sensory
3.5.7.1 These would pick up change in tempreature, pressure.
3.6 Eyes
3.6.1 Sensitive to light
3.7 Ears
3.7.1 Vibration Sensitive
3.8 Nose
3.8.1 Chemicals in air
3.9 Skin
3.9.1 Touch, Pressure, pain
3.10 Tounge
3.10.1 Chemicals in food
3.11 Eyes
3.11.1 Iris
3.11.1.1 The iris has little muscles that dilate and constrict dependent of the light
3.11.2 Conrea
3.11.2.1 To focus light into the eye
3.11.3 Lens
3.11.3.1 Expands and fattens, to see near and far objects
3.11.4 Pupil
3.11.4.1 I hole that would allow light to pass
3.11.5 Sclear
3.11.5.1 Reflects light that has past through the choroid, and protects the eye
3.11.6 Vitreous Humor
3.11.6.1 The sack inside the year
3.11.7 Optic Nerve
3.11.7.1 Sends what the light receptors pick up to the brain as electrical signals
3.11.8 Retina
3.11.8.1 Contains light receptors to pick up light
3.11.9 Fovea
3.11.9.1 Color Vision
3.11.10 Macula
3.11.10.1 Provides Clear Vision
3.11.10.1.1 20/20
3.11.11 Choriod
3.11.11.1 An unreflective layer
3.11.12 Aqueous Humor
3.11.13 Focal point
3.11.13.1 The point at which the light is diffracted on to the retina
3.11.13.2 Light rays could go outside the focal path
3.11.14 Long-sightedness
3.11.14.1 Eyeball to short
3.11.14.2 Cornea not curved enough
3.11.14.3 Lens isn't thick enogugh
3.11.14.4 Focal point falls outside of retina
3.11.15 Short-sightedness
3.11.15.1 Focal point doesn't fall on retina
3.11.15.2 Enter text here
3.11.15.3
4 Inheritance
4.1 Male Mammals
4.1.1 Males carry XY sex chromosomes
4.2 Female Mammals
4.2.1 Females carry the XX Chromosome
4.3 DNA
4.3.1 (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
4.3.2 DNA carries the code that determines the characteristics of a living thing
4.3.3 identical twins
4.3.3.1 Have the same DNA
4.3.4 Because of DNA each fingerprint is unique
4.3.5 Gene
4.3.5.1 A gene is a base guide that makes up the DNA it shows how amino acids can be put together
4.3.6 Chromosomes
4.3.6.1 These are made up of Long Molecules of DNA
4.3.6.2 Are in Nucleus of a cell
4.3.6.3 23 pairs
4.3.6.4 Number of pair varies from species to species
4.4 Gametes
4.4.1 The male gamete is sperm
4.4.2 The female gamete is an egg cell
4.4.3 Contain half of the chromosomes in a normal cell
4.5 Alleles
4.5.1 Recessive
4.5.1.1 The eye color that will not be inherited
4.5.2 Dominate
4.5.2.1 Is the eye color or feature that will be inherited

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