B1 revision mind map

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Mind Map by fdanewmark, updated more than 1 year ago
fdanewmark
Created by fdanewmark over 5 years ago
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science biology B1

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B1 revision mind map
1 Human health and diet
1.1 not being healthy can cause

Annotations:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/dietrev2.shtml
1.1.1 diabetes

Annotations:

  • an illness in which the body is unable to control the amount of sugar in the blood
1.1.2 arthritis

Annotations:

  •  an illness in which the joints become worn, inflamed and painful
1.1.3 heart disease
1.1.4 breast cancer
1.2 The main nutrients in food
1.2.1 Carbohydrates
1.2.1.1 made from simple sugars such as glucose
1.2.1.2 high-energy source
1.2.2 Fats
1.2.2.1 made from fatty acids and glycerol
1.2.2.2 high-energy source
1.2.3 Proteins
1.2.3.1 made from amino acids
1.2.3.2 growth and repair
1.3 vitamins
1.3.1 minerals, such as iron, to make the haemoglobin needed in red blood cells
1.3.1.1 vitamins, such as vitamin C, which prevents a disease called scurvy
1.3.1.1.1 fibre, which prevents constipation
1.3.1.1.1.1 water
1.4 Body Mass Index

Annotations:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/dietrev2.shtml
1.4.1 BMI = mass in kg ÷ (height in m)²
1.5 Estimated average daily requirement
1.5.1 EAR in g = 0.6 × body mass in kg
1.6 Kwashiorkor

Annotations:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/dietrev3.shtml
1.6.1 disease caused by protein deficiency

Annotations:

  • Symptoms include a badly swollen abdomen (tummy)
1.7 fats are stored around organs and under the skin as adipose tissue
1.8 carbohydrates are converted to fats, or stored as glycogen in the liver
1.9 A balanced diet

Annotations:

  • it is a mix of all of the good nutrients and not have to much of 1 thing
2 heath and fitness

Annotations:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/fitness_healthrev1.shtml
2.1 Arteries

Annotations:

  • carry blood away from the heart. Blood in the arteries is under pressure because of the contractions of the heart muscles. This allows the blood to reach all parts of the body
2.2 blood pressure
2.2.1 smoking
2.2.2 being overweight
2.2.3 drinking a lot of alcohol
2.2.4 stress
2.3 systolic pressure

Annotations:

  •  the higher measurement when the heart beats, pushing blood through the arteries
2.4 signs of being fit
2.4.1 strength
2.4.2 stamina

Annotations:

  • endurance or staying power
2.4.3 flexibility
2.4.4 agility

Annotations:

  •  how easily someone moves
2.4.5 speed
2.4.6 cardiovascular efficiency

Annotations:

  • how well a person's circulatory system works.
2.5 High blood pressure can cause

Annotations:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/fitness_healthrev1.shtml
2.5.1 kidney damage
2.5.2 burst blood vessels
2.5.3 damage to the brain, including strokes.
3 staying heathly

Annotations:

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/understanding_organisms/staying_healthyrev1.shtml
3.1 pathogens

Annotations:

  • Pathogens are organisms that cause disease. They include microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. The table shows some of the diseases they cause.
3.1.1 type of pathogen
3.1.1.1 bacteria
3.1.1.1.1 cause/disease : cholera
3.1.1.2 viruses
3.1.1.2.1 cause/disease : influenza (flu)
3.1.1.3 fungi
3.1.1.3.1 cause/disease : athlete’s foot
3.1.1.4 protozoa
3.1.1.4.1 cause/disease : malaria

Annotations:

  • Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan, a type of single-celled organism. The malaria parasite is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. These insects feed on blood and the malaria parasite is passed on when the mosquito takes a meal. Organisms that spread disease, rather than causing it themselves, are called vectors. The mosquito is the vector for malaria.
3.1.1.4.1.1 higher tier

Annotations:

  • It is important to understand the life cycle of a pathogen and the way in which vectors spread the pathogen. This knowledge gives scientists ideas about how the spread of a disease might be controlled. In principal, if the life cycle of a pathogen can be broken, eventually all the individuals of that pathogen will die out, leaving a disease-free population. For example, the spread of malaria can be controlled by avoiding contact with the vector. One way to do this is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes, for example using mosquito netting at windows, doors and around beds. The mosquitoes may be killed using insecticides. The parasite itself can be killed by giving infected people drugs such as Lariam.
3.2 Infectious and non-infectious diseases

Annotations:

  • scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency. anaemia is caused by iron deficiency. diabetes and cancer are disorders of the body.
3.3 Cancer

Annotations:

  • A cancer happens when cells begin to divide out of control. They form tumours that can sometimes be felt as an unusual lump in the body.
3.3.1 higher tier

Annotations:

  • Tumours can be benign or malignant, benign tumours grow slowly and are usually harmless – warts are benign tumoursmalignant tumours often grow more quickly and may spread throughout the body.
3.4 Body defences
3.4.1 skin

Annotations:

  • The skin covers the whole body. It protects the body from physical damage, microbe infection and dehydration. Its dry, dead outer cells are difficult for microbes to penetrate, and the sebaceous glands produce oils that help kill microbes.
3.4.2 The body has several defences against pathogens so that we do not fall ill with the diseases they cause.
3.5 Blood clotting

Annotations:

  • If microorganisms get into the body through a cut in the skin, the most important thing to do is close the wound quickly so that no more microorganisms can enter. A scab does just that. The blood contains tiny structures called platelets, and a protein called fibrin. A scab is basically platelets stuck in a fibrin mesh. The animation shows how this works.
3.6 Immunity
3.6.1 White blood cells

Annotations:

  • Pathogens contain certain chemicals that are foreign to the body, called antigens. Some white blood cells can make antibodies. These are proteins that have a chemical 'fit' to a certain antigen. When a white blood cell with the appropriate antibody meets the antigen, it reproduces quickly and makes many copies of the antibody to neutralise the pathogen. The animation shows how this works.
3.6.1.1 engulf pathogens and destroy them
3.6.1.1.1 produce antibodies to destroy pathogens
3.6.1.1.1.1 produce antitoxins that neutralise the toxins released by pathogens.
4 The nervous system
4.1 5 Different receptors
4.1.1 eyes
4.1.1.1 light
4.1.2 ears
4.1.2.1 sound and position of the head
4.1.3 tongue
4.1.3.1 chemicals in food
4.1.4 nose
4.1.4.1 chemicals in the air
4.1.5 skin
4.1.5.1 touch and pressure
4.2 Cells
4.2.1 animals cells
4.2.1.1 Most animal cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Light receptors have these cell components too.
4.2.2 human cells
4.2.2.1 The human central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. When a receptor is stimulated, it sends a signal along the nerve cells, also called neurones, to the brain which then co-ordinates a response.
4.3 recetors

Annotations:

  • Receptors are groups of specialised cells. They can detect changes (stimuli) in the environment. Receptors are often located in the sense organs, such as the ear, eye and skin. Each organ has receptors sensitive to particular kinds of stimulus. The table shows some receptors and the stimuli they detect.
4.4 The Eye
4.4.1
4.4.2 Cornea
4.4.2.1 Pigmented - decides the colour of your eyes - so light cannot pass through. Its muscles contract and relax to alter the size of its central hole or pupil.
4.4.3 Iris
4.4.3.1 Transparent, bi-convex, flexible disc behind the iris attached by the suspensory ligaments to the ciliary muscles.
4.4.4 Lens
4.4.4.1 The lining of the back of eye containing two types of photoreceptor cells - rods - sensitive to dim light and black and white, cones - sensitive to colour. A small area called the fovea in the middle of the retina has many more cones than rods.
4.4.5 Retina
4.4.5.1 Bundle of sensory neurones at back of eye.
4.4.6 Optic nerve
4.4.6.1 Front part of the tough outer coat, the sclera. It is convex and transparent.
4.4.7 the pathway of light

Annotations:

  • Light passes through the eyeball to the retina. It is refracted (its rays are bent) by the cornea and lens, so that the light is brought to a focus on the retina.
4.4.8 Binocular vision

Annotations:

  • Because our eyes sit side by side, each eye captures a slightly different view. This is called binocular vision. When signals from the two eyes reach the brain, they are superimposed and processed into a single picture with depth. As a result, we get a 3D picture and are able to judge distances well. Most birds and lizards have monocular vision - their eyes are on each side of their head. This gives them a greater field of view, which is useful for spotting predators. However, they have poor depth perception.
4.4.9 long sight

Annotations:

  • Someone with long-sightedness can see distant objects clearly, but can't focus properly on near objects. This is because the lens focuses the sharpest image behind the retina, instead of on it.
4.4.10 short sight

Annotations:

  • Someone with short-sightedness can see near objects clearly, but can't focus properly on distant objects. This is because the lens focuses the sharpest image in front of the retina, instead of on it.
4.4.11 colour blindness

Annotations:

  • Colour blindness is an inherited condition. The retina contains cells that are sensitive to red, green or blue light. People with colour blindness have a lack of receptors, or defects in them. People with red-green colour blindness, for example, have difficulty distinguishing shades of red and green.
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