BIOLOGY: B1

Jack Hammock
Mind Map by Jack Hammock, updated more than 1 year ago
Jack Hammock
Created by Jack Hammock over 5 years ago
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This mind map will help you get to grips with the basics of GCSE Biology B1A coursework.

Resource summary

BIOLOGY: B1
1 EXERCISE
1.1 Pulse increases with the amount of exercise you do because your body needs more oxygen in the blood.
1.2 BLOOD PRESSURE
1.2.1 Systolic is the highest pressure that the arteries are under during a heart beat cycle.
1.2.2 Diastolic is the lowest pressure that arteries are under during the heart beat cycle.
1.2.3 Both Diastolic and Systolic are measured in MMTLG.
1.2.3.1 MMTLG-
1.2.4 Blood Pressure-The pressure in which blood pumps around the body.
2 DRUG TRIALS
2.1 Drugs are tested with placebos to stop mentality affecting the tests.
2.2 There are 2 types of trials for drug testing, Blind and Double-Blind.
2.2.1 Blind Trials-Drug trials that the test subjects are given 2 pills, one is a placebo and the other is the actual pill. This stops mentality affecting the tests
2.2.1.1 Placebos-Placebos are pills that dont actually have any benefits. These may be sugar pills or vitamin pills. They are used because it helps see if there is a psycological factor in drug tests.
2.2.2 Double Blind Trials-Drug trials that neither the Scientists or the test subjects know what they are getting. This stops the scientists making biased results for the test.
3 FOOD
3.1 There are 7 different Food Groups, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Water and Fibre.
3.1.1 Carbohydrates-Used for energy
3.1.2 Proteins-Used for growth and repair
3.1.2.1 First Class Proteins-Proteins that come from foods of an animal origin and contain all of the essential Amino Acids (cannot be made in the body).
3.1.2.2 Second Class Proteins-Proteins that come from foods of a plant origin and do not contain all of the essential Amino Acids
3.1.3 Fats-Used for energy storage
3.1.4 Vitamins-Used for building up your immune systems
3.1.5 Minerals-Used for haemoglobins
3.1.5.1 Haemoglobins- A protein found in the erythrocytes (red blood cells) with the primary function to transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and return carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs.
3.1.6 Water-Used for hydration
3.1.7 Fibre-Prevents constipation
3.2
4 EAR AND BMI
4.1 EAR-Estimated average requirement
4.1.1 EAR=0.6 x Body mass in KG
4.2 BMI=Weight in KG
5 STAYING HEALTHY
5.1 Cancer
5.1.1 Cancerous cells divide in an abnormal and uncontrolled way, forming lumps of cells called tumors.
5.1.2 A tumor that grows in one place is described as benign where-as if the tumor breaks apart and forms secondary tumors, they are called malignant.
5.1.3 A persons chance of surviving the cancer depends on multiple things. It depends on the type of cancer they have, how early the cancer is diagnosed, how young the patient is and if the tumor is benign
5.2 Types of disease
5.2.1 Fungi-Fungi is any of a group of unicellular, multi-cellular, or syncytial spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter like mold.
5.2.2 Bacteria-Bacteria is a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some which can cause disease.
5.2.3 Virus-Viruses are an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host.
5.2.4 Protozoa-Protozoa's are a phylum or grouping of phyla which comprises the single-celled microscopic animals, which include amoebas, flagellates, ciliates, sporozoans, and many other forms.
5.3 Protection from diseases
5.3.1 Things that protect us from disease.
5.3.1.1 Our stomach produces Hydrochloric acid to kill micro-organisms in the food we eat.
5.3.1.2 Our skin forms a dead outer barrier to protect us from disease in the air and on surfaces.
5.3.1.3 Cuts form a scab by clotting blood to stop wounds from getting infected.
5.3.1.4 The respiratory system is lined with cells that produce a sticky liquid mucus that forms a mucus membrane that protects us from pathogens that we breath in.
5.3.1.5 White blood cells.
5.3.1.5.1 Type 1-Type one white blood cells engulf the pathogens they find in the blood stream and digest them.
5.3.1.5.2 Type 2-Type two white blood cells produce antibodies.
5.3.2 Types of immunisation
5.3.2.1 Natural Active- Natural active immunisation is when you catch the disease naturally and make your own antibodies.
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