Analyst on H2O! Compleate

meghansarah
Mind Map by meghansarah, updated more than 1 year ago
meghansarah
Created by meghansarah over 5 years ago
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Degree- Environmental Science and Outdoor Education at University of Stirling, Scotland 3rd Year (SCI5T5) Mind Map on Analyst on H2O! Compleate, created by meghansarah on 09/30/2014.

Resource summary

Analyst on H2O! Compleate
1 intro
1.1 Tests conducted
1.1.1 ensure safe to drink!
1.1.2 Thames conducts over 500, 000 tests per year to ensure safe drinking water for the people of London!
1.1.3 DEFRA: Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs
1.1.3.1 Responsible for drinking water safety
1.1.4 over50 tests conducted
1.1.5 taken from various locatuions
1.1.5.1 Household
1.1.5.2 Rivers
1.1.5.3 outflow from waste centers
2 Drinking water inspectorate
2.1 into three parts
2.1.1 operations
2.1.1.1 Responding to complaints by customers about drinking water quality
2.1.1.2 Regulation of water company Sampling and analyst of H2O
2.1.1.3 assessment of incidents potentially affecting drinking water quality
2.1.2 Regulations
2.1.2.1 Input/advise on new regulations on drinking water
2.1.2.2 Input into Ofwat periodic review of water prices
2.1.2.2.1 Ofwat- economic regulators of England and wales
2.1.3 Science and Strategy
2.1.3.1 leads reserch and reports back to defra
2.1.3.2 works within corperate and public bodies and reports findings
3 Tests
3.1 50 conducted
3.1.1 Microbiological
3.1.1.1 E.coli, Coliforms
3.1.2 chemical
3.1.2.1 Copper, Cyanide, nitrate, Alpha and beta activity
3.2 ph, Colour, turbidity, taste and odour
4 where does pollutants come from?
4.1 Costal
4.1.1 pollutants in water or sediments
4.1.1.1 oil leaks
4.1.1.1.1 BP oil spill in gulph of Mexico 2010
4.1.1.2 Shipping
4.1.1.2.1 Spillage
4.1.1.2.2 dumping
4.1.1.2.3 used fuel?
4.1.1.3 Radioactivity
4.1.1.3.1 Dalgehty bay
4.1.2
4.2 River
4.2.1 run off from farms
4.2.1.1 excess fertiliser
4.2.1.1.1 pesticides, herbacides
4.2.1.2 Waste from animals being leached
4.2.1.2.1 Amonia
4.2.1.2.2 scilage pits
4.2.1.3 Soil acidification due to crops
4.2.2 Homes
4.2.2.1 Sewage-raw overspill or partial
4.2.2.1.1 septic tanks not working/damaged or not being emptied
4.2.2.2 chemicals from cleaning homes and peple
4.2.3 recration
4.2.3.1 Paddlers,fishermen
4.3 underground water
4.3.1 boarholes
4.3.2 nutrients leaching
4.4 Base conditions+bank conditions=contact time
5 Objectives of sampling
5.1 baseline monitering
5.1.1 Understand the site, What's happening
5.1.1.1 Vip for development
5.1.2 Impacts in + or- way
5.1.2.1 Sewage treatment works
5.2 environmental indicator
5.2.1 investigate what's happening in the environemt
5.2.2 gives general indication of the health of the area.
5.2.2.1 Mayfly nimph can indicate healthy water area
5.2.2.2 Blood work indicates a poluted stream area
5.2.2.3 Using indicator species
5.3 investigative
5.3.1 industry specific
5.3.2 used after an event
5.3.2.1 fish death
5.3.2.2 find out why and what has happened in order to rectifif the situation.
5.3.2.3 Used to trace back to what has cused the event
5.4 compliance check monitering
5.4.1 Thmes water check the water and have to report the data
5.4.2 Sepa check the summer bathing waters to ensure puplic safty
5.4.2.1 46 (55%) were classified as being of guideline quality for EU compliance. 36 (43%) were classified as being of mandatory quality for EU compliance. 2 (2%) were classified as failing the mandatory quality for EU compliance
5.4.2.1.1 Sepa,, 2014
5.5 Reasurance.
5.5.1 of public that i is safe, to drink to swim
6 Representive
6.1 of area
6.2 of stream
7 sampling schemes
7.1 Process
7.1.1 judgment
7.1.1.1 use understanding to track back
7.1.2 stratified
7.1.3 systematic
7.1.4 Random
7.2 Why
7.2.1 how
7.2.2 how to store
7.2.2.1 what are you testing for?
7.2.2.1.1 chemicals
7.2.2.1.2 bacteria
7.2.2.1.3 Alge
7.2.2.1.3.1 dark bottle or light, light will allow to photosynthesis and therefore could be dead by the time you check sample . whould show a decrease in oxygen
7.2.2.1.3.2 Drak will alow to
7.2.2.1.4 metals
7.2.2.2 metals might be absorbed by thr bottles.
7.2.2.2.1 No longer in sample and get incorrect readings.
7.3 WHO
7.3.1 Time
7.3.1.1 recommend samples return to the lab within 2hours to gain most accurate results
7.3.1.2 up to 6 is acceptable
7.3.1.3 24hrs is a maximum
8 changes in concentration
8.1 heavy rain evet
8.2 Lack of rain
8.3 field run off
8.4
8.5 mesurments
8.5.1 Base conditions + bank conditions=contact time
9 Flow gauging
9.1 Flow rating curve
9.1.1
9.1.2 Allows measurement of depth of flow (stage) to be converted to discharge (Q)
9.1.2.1 Discharge is the amount of water flowing.mesured in cumecs
9.1.2.2 Stage=hight of flow
10 how doing
10.1 physical sampling
10.1.1 people, potentially expensive- human error
10.2 automatic sampling
10.2.1 expensive machinery
10.2.2 takes samples automatically and can transmit or store data collected
11 measurement s
11.1 common
11.1.1 pH
11.1.2 EC
11.1.2.1 Electrical conductivity
11.1.2.1.1 higher results shows higher nutrient levels due to dissolved nutrients (+or- charged)
11.1.3 colomotry
11.1.3.1 colour and cloudyness
11.1.4 Anions
11.1.4.1 alkalies and salts
11.1.5 cations
11.1.5.1 metals
11.2 specific to area
11.2.1 pathogens
12 Good data
12.1 errors
12.1.1 Gross
12.1.1.1 carelessness
12.1.1.1.1 majorly affect experiment
12.1.1.1.2 spillage, miss-labelling, incorrect dilution
12.1.2 systematic
12.1.2.1 incorrect calibration of equipment
12.1.2.2 affection of one sample
12.1.2.3 mistakes in data analyst.
12.1.3 random
12.1.3.1 small fulminations in individual results
12.1.3.2 misreading a scale, unpredictable in occurace
12.2 precision
12.2.1 Allow for errors
12.2.1.1 Coefficient variation.
12.2.1.1.1 CV
12.2.1.1.1.1 CV=100(SD/mean)
12.2.1.1.1.2 How close repeated measurements on the same sample are, a measure of random error
12.3 Accuracy
12.3.1 Expressed through CV
12.3.2 Closeness of measured value to “true” value, a measure of systematic error
12.3.3 Standard reference materials: independent source, value certified
12.3.4 %Recovery = (Analytical value/truce value) x100
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