Attitudes

Hannah96
Mind Map by Hannah96, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah96
Created by Hannah96 over 5 years ago
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A Levels PE Mind Map on Attitudes, created by Hannah96 on 10/07/2014.
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Attitudes
1 An enduring evaluation - positive or negative - of people, objects and ideas.
1.1 Attitudes are stable and enduring, they are focused on an attitude object, and they are evaluative, subjective or beliefs.
1.1.1 Our attitude may alter dramatically from one attitude object to another. e.g. we may have a positive attitude towards sport in general but a negative attitude to sports that involve physical violence. Therefore we can say that whilst generally a positive attitude can lead to positive behaviour patterns, this cannot be guaranteed.
2 Components of Attitude
2.1 Attitudes often form our beliefs and values, which in turn may influence our behaviour. Triandis proposed that our attitude comprises of 3 components, known as the Triadic Model.
2.2 Cognitive Component
2.2.1 Reflects our beliefs, knowledge, thoughts, ideas and information we have regarding an attitude object. e.g. based on info from our parents and PE lessons we may think swimming is good for us based on health and safety.
2.3 Affective Component
2.3.1 This involves our emotional response or feelings to the attitude object. e.g. we may have enjoyed swimming with friends/lessons. leads to positive feelings towards future participation. However if the experience was negative then future participation may be affected.
2.4 Behavioural Component
2.4.1 Involves our intended or actual behaviour towards an attitude object. Often based on our evaluation of the previous 2 components. e.g. because of positive beliefs and experiences about swimming, we actually participate regularly. This also shows that the first 2 components aren't always an accurate predictor of behaviour. e.g. many of us see swimming as being good, and we enjoy it, yet we fail to actually visit a pool.
3 Formation of Attitudes
3.1 Most attitudes are learnt through socialising and observation of others - operant conditioning. Other influences may have included parents, role models, teachers, friends, family etc. some may be more influential than others and these may change over time.
3.2 Things that lead to a negative attitude:
3.2.1 Negative experience.failure
3.2.2 Fear of failure
3.2.3 Fear of injury/ Personal Safety
3.2.4 Low status of activity in society
3.2.5 Cultural Beliefs
3.2.6 Lack of Support
3.2.7 Low Self Confidence
3.2.8 High Task Difficulty
3.2.9 Negative Role Models
3.2.10 Stereotypical Images
4 Measurement of Attitudes
4.1 You can measure the individuals attitude through interviews, questionnaires, observations and physiological responses. Interviews and self-report questionnaires are less subjective.
4.2 Thurston Scale
4.2.1 Its made up of a number of statements covering a range of opinions towards an attitude object. Initially about 100 statements were issued to a panel of judges. Each statement is given a rating on their favourableness and unfavourableness on an 11 point scale. The statements with scores that vary widely are rejected, until there are 11 favourable and unfavourable items left which then form the attitude scale. The average of the judges ratings becomes the scale value for the statement. A statement with the value 6 is a neutral opinion. A value of 10 indicates a favourable opinion and a value of 2 indicates an unfavourable opinion. This type of scale allows for comparison however its time consuming, requires a large number of experts to construct the scale, because the averages used can hide extreme attitudes.
4.3 Likert Scale
4.3.1 Simplified version of the Thurston Scale. This is more frequently used. A series of statements are constructed showing both favourable and unfavourable opinions towards an attitude object. The participant is required to respond to a 5 point scale. A favourable statement score is 5 (strongly agree) 1 is an unfavourable statement score (strongly disagree). The scores are then totalled to provide an overall attitude score. Advantages are that it allows for a range of answers, easy to administer, cheaper and easier to construct, produces reliable results.
4.4 Osgood's Sematic Differential Scale
4.4.1 The participant is required to give the attitude object a 7-step rating based on 2 opposing adjectives. The individual has to select a point which best reflects their own feelings. (-3, -2. -1, 0, 1, 2, 3) This is a quick and simple method to use, however the selection of word pairs may not allow the individual much choice and could be interpreted differently.
4.5 Evaluation
4.5.1 Individuals may not respond truthfully, They may provide socially acceptable answers, Misunderstand the question, Attitudes may be difficult to express in words, Wording of statement may lead to respondents answering in a certain manner.
5 Changing Attitudes
5.1 Cognitive Dissonance
5.1.1 Festinger proposed that an individuals beliefs and thoughts have a direct influence on their behaviour. If these cognitions are challenged with new information then a person will experience a sense of psychological discomfort and will attempt to restore the balance of harmony. This conflict is known as dissonance.
5.1.2 The aim is to change an attitude based on the assumption that one of the components of their triadic model can be manipulated to create dissonance. After reviewing the new info or experience the individual either then develops a new attitude or retains the existing one. If dissonance does occur the feelings of discomfort can be dispelled by making the cognition less important, changing the cognition, replacing the cognition.
5.1.3 1. To alter the cognition new information can be given, e.g. giving detailed benefits, rewards, shown examples of people who wasted their talents, discuss consequences of their actions. 2. The affective component may be changed by giving a different experience e.g. the performer is given more praise during training, competition, challenging targets. Also they may give feedback based on their performance, not being compared to others. Mechanical guidance can be used if they are concerned about their safety. 3. The behavioural component can be altered by ensuring the skill is simplified, success is achieved and reinforced, causing a positive affective component.
5.1.4 Often negative views, towards an attitude object can be altered by the change of opinions within a peer group or society. Stereotypical images can change if the team is successful, high profile stars emerge, and non stereotyped performers are involved.
5.2 Persuasive Communication
5.2.1 The status of the messenger or person delivering the new ideas. If this person has certain characteristics then they are more likely to be successful. They should be of high status, an expert, likeable and attractive to the individual.
5.2.2 The quality of the message. this message should make the individual want to change their own attitude. It should be clear, ambiguous, appear to their sense of fear, presented in a confident manner. The higher the quality of the message the more likely the chance of success.
5.2.3 The strength of the current attitude and the resistance to change. Characteristics of the recipient can influence the degree of resistance to change. They should consider the original formation of the attitude, strength of current belief and level of education.
5.2.4 The situation or context in which the message is being delivered. Different situations require different approaches; consider the formality of the environment, level of support from others and time and resources available.
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