Psychology Learning approach

Mind Map by eleanor.brown199, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by eleanor.brown199 over 5 years ago


Mind Map on Psychology Learning approach, created by eleanor.brown199 on 10/12/2014.

Resource summary

Psychology Learning approach
1 Key assumptions Watson.
1.1 The Blank slate: That we all enter the world with a 'blank slate'. Meaning that we all have the same capacity to learn things.
1.1.1 We learn from our environment and experiences.
1.1.2 We each have unique ways of learning because of our experiences.
1.2 Focus on behaviour: Believed that every Psychologist should use scientific methods and study only directly observable things.
1.2.1 Such as conditions/ environment and behaviour.
1.3 Universal laws: Learning Psychologists think that we can study people and animals and generate theories that apply to all. (Not Watson's theory).
1.4 Conditioning: Watson believed that the main ( if not only) process of how people learn is by conditioning. This is the type of learning where two things are associated.
1.4.1 Idea originated from Ivan Pavlov.
2 Classical Conditioning.
2.1 Stimulus and response.
2.1.1 Natural Stimulus: Something in the environment that doesn't produce a response.
2.1.2 UnConditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that produces a natural, unlearnt response.
2.1.3 UnConditioned Response: A response that occurs naturally without learning
2.1.4 Conditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that has been associated with a UCS so that it now produces the same response as the UCS on its own.
2.1.5 Conditioned Response: A learnt behaviour that is shown in response to a learnt conditioned stimulus.
2.1.6 Example: Pavlov conditioned his dogs to salvate at the sound of a bell. This was because the dog associated the sound of the bell with the presentation of food.
2.2 Stimulus Generalization: The tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
2.2.1 For example Pavlov's dogs began to salivate when they saw something that closely resembled the conditioned stimulus. The sight of an oval made them salivate as it looks like a circle.
2.3 Stimulus discrimination: This when we learn to respond only to the original stimulus, and not to other similar stimuli.
2.4 Extinction: refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing.
2.5 Little Albert
2.5.1 Albert was tested for his response to several stimuli. Because Albert was afraid of the hammer hitting the pole it was used to condition him to fear the white rat. The rat was presented to Albert and when he reached for the rat the hammer hit the pole making him jump This happened several times over seven weeks. By now the rat presented on its created fear in Albert and he began to cry and try to crawl away. The CR generalized to the rabbit, the dog, a sealskin fur coat, cotton wool, Watson's hair and a Santa Claus mask. Months after his conditioning Albert fear was still present towards the white rabbit. However before the conditioning done on Albert could be reversed he was removed from the study.
2.6 Spontaneous recovery: When an extinct response happens spontaneously.
3 Treating phobias
3.1 Phobia: Exaggerated fear of an object or situation.
3.2 Flooding: When the person with the phobia is put in a room with the phobia. This is because the body can't maintain it's feelings of fear for prolonged periods of time, this makes the person stop reacting to the fear over a period of time.
3.3 Systematic desensitisation.
3.3.1 Phase 1-Functional analysis: The client and the therapist create a hierarchy of fearful situations.
3.3.2 Phase 2-Relaxation training: The client is then trained in methods of relaxation.
3.3.3 Phase 3-Graduated exposure: The client is gradually exposed to the phobia, following the hierarchy that was established. When exposed the client uses the previously learnt relaxation techniques to calm themselves down at the sight of the stimulus. When the client is fully relaxed they can be exposed to more intense exposure.
4 Operant conditioning.
4.2 Reinforcement
4.2.1 Positive A reward of something good is given because of the behaviour. The bahaviour is then repeated. Takes longer than negative reinforcement.
4.2.2 Negative Is faster than positive reinforcement. A reward in terms of the removal of something unpleasant id given because of the desired behaviour being shown. The behaviour is then repeated.
4.2.3 Primary reinforcer: Used to satisfy a basic need, for example food.
4.2.4 Secondary reinforcer: Only useful because they are associated with the primary reinforcer, for example food.
4.2.5 Variable schedule: When you don't reinforce the behaviour everytime.
4.2.6 Fixed ratio: A fixed ratio schedule that refers to applying the reinforcement after a specific numbers of behaviours have been done.
4.2.7 Fixed interval: Applying the reinforcer after a specific amount of time is referred to as a fixed interval schedule.
4.2.8 Variable ratio: This refers to applying a reinforcer after a variable number of responses.
4.2.9 Variable interval: Reinforcing someone after a variable amount of time is the final schedule. If you have a boss that checks your work periodically you are more likely to only work hard when you know when they are coming around. Compared to a boss who checks your randomly as you are more likely to work hard all the time.
4.3 Punishment
4.3.1 Something unpleasant happens because of the behaviour. The behaviour isn't repeated.
4.5 Behaviour shaping
4.5.1 The principles of operant conditioning can be used to develop complex behaviours that wouldn't usually be shown naturally.
4.5.2 This is done by reinforcing behaviours that closely link to the desired target baehaviour.
4.5.3 Reinforcement then gradually becomes more selective by reinforcing more and more closely so that closely related behaviours until the targeted behaviour is produced.
4.5.4 This is called behaviour shaping because reinforcements are being given for successive approximations until the desired target response achieved.
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