Brewing and Fermenting

Shelly Shah
Mind Map by Shelly Shah, updated more than 1 year ago
Shelly Shah
Created by Shelly Shah over 5 years ago


Mind Map on Brewing and Fermenting, created by Shelly Shah on 10/14/2014.

Resource summary

Brewing and Fermenting
1 Ingredients in Beer
1.1 Hops
1.1.1 Female flower cone (Humulus lupulus)
1.1.2 More than 80 varities
1.1.3 Resin adds the bitterness iso-a-acids essential to balance sweetness of malt
1.1.4 Essential oils Have aroma characteristics provide, fruity, floral, spicy etc
1.2 Malt
1.2.1 refers to malted barely
1.2.2 malting is the controlled germination of cereals to activate enzymes used in the mashing process
1.2.3 There are a spectrum of malt types Base malts lager (pilsner), ale Provide enzyme activity for the mash Toasted malts Vienna, amber Darker malts Brown, chocoloate Speciality crystal, caramel
1.2.4 Provides body, and sweetness
1.2.5 Fermentable sugars, e.g alcohol
1.2.6 Variety of flavours, e.g grainy, toasted etc
1.2.7 Other sources of fermentable sugars Cereal Adjuncts Rice e.g Budweiser, & Japanese largers Corn e.g Stella Cane sugar (sucrose) Honey, maple syrup, molasses Why use this? - Cost is cheaper, and to modify beer properties
1.3 Yeast
1.3.1 Single cell organisms
1.3.2 Eukaryotic cells in fungi kingdom
1.3.3 Ale (top fermenting) e.g Saccharomyces cerevisiae
1.3.4 Lager strains (bottom fermenting) e.g S. pastorianus
1.3.5 Modern Classification and species differentiation achieved by DNA fingerprinting
1.3.6 Different yeast strains important for yeast styles and flavour properties Hop & aroma flavours Malt charactertics Yeast derived flavour e.g fruity esters, tartness (organic acids), spicy, peppery phenolics
1.4 Water
1.4.1 Alkalinity, pH, hardness, mineral ion all determine beer character and beer style different mineral ions affect beer flavour accentuating either malt or bitterness
1.4.2 Affects conditions for biochemical reactions during brewing
1.4.3 Important for yeast nutrition and optimal fermentation performance, hence flavour quality
2 Barley
2.1 2-rowed variety
2.1.1 Only central floret is fertile, hence 1 seed at each node
2.2 6-rowed variety
2.2.1 All florets are fertile, hence 3 seeds at each node
2.3 Structure
2.3.1 Husk (hull) protects the embryo Important in wort seperation
2.3.2 Aleurone Source of enzymes, produced in response to hormones from the growing embryo
2.3.3 Endosperm the starch granules here in the form of fermentable sugars and amino acids Composed of large + small starch granules Cell walls within matrix holding the starch granules are composed of beta-glucans, some pentosans, and protein
2.3.4 Acrospire The plant shoot
2.3.5 Microphyle
3 The Process
3.1 Malting
3.1.1 1st) Steeping activation of enzymes by steeping with water increases moisture from11-12% to 42-44% Grains swell 1st Immersion 6-16 hours to raise water content to 3-37% 2nd) Immersion 10-20 hours Air Rest 12-24 hours Expose embryos to oxygen Remove CO2 Chemical Process Water enters through the grain, through the microphyle and distributes through the endosperm The water activates the embryo which produces hormones that migrate to the aleurone This stimulates production of enzymes
3.1.2 2nd) Germinating Barley spread in a germination box, this: Dissipates CO2 Keeps temperature constant Prevents roots from matting The acrospire grows alongside of the kernel Pre-existing enzymes are released and new enzymes are created in the aleurone layer. This modifies the endosperm for the acrospire's use The enzymes break down the endosprems's protein/carb matrix into smaller carbs, aa's and lipids, also open up the starch reserves Modification refers to the degree to which enzymes break down the starch granules Length of the acrospire will be around 75-100% A Maltster judges the degree of modification by the length of acrospire
3.1.3 3rd) Klining Drying reduces moisture content from 45% to 5% Kills any microbes Performed at low temperatures to minimise degradation of enzymes Stops germination and kills embryo Inhibits any ongoing enzyme activity Diastatic Power: the amount of enzymatic starch conversion potential that a malt has The acrospire and rootlets are knocked off by tumbling Malts klined at different times/temp to develop different colours + flavours
3.1.4 Initial Steps Barely cleaned, sized, viability measured, and N content determined
4 Biochemsitry of malting
4.1 Starch
4.1.1 Composed of Amylose and Amylopectin
4.1.2 Enzymes involved are: a-glucosidase, a-amylase, b-amylase a-amylase is main degrading enzyme Attacks at random in the middle of amylose and amylopectin This releases maltose and maltotriose, and dextrins Maltose is the main sugar found during mash More thermostable than b-amylase
4.1.3 Gelatinisation To achieve gelatinisation mashing includes a conversion stage at 65C for 1 h Small granules gelatinase at a higher temp than large granules
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