Excretion - Kidney failure

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biology (F214) Mind Map on Excretion - Kidney failure, created by Nikita96 on 07/10/2013.

Created by Nikita96 over 6 years ago
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Excretion - Kidney failure
1 Kidney failure
1.1 Can be caused by kidney infections: inflammation of the kidneys which can damage cell. This interferes with filtering in the renal capsules or with reabsorption in other parts
1.1.1 High blood pressure can cause the glomerulus to be under even more pressure so larger molecules would pass through such as proteins
1.2 Waste products that would be normally removed, build up in the body. Causes weight loss and vomiting
1.2.1 Fluid starts to accumulate in tissues as the kidneys cannot removed excess water. Causes swelling
1.2.2 The balance of ions becomes unbalanced. Blood may become too acidic, or lead to brittle bones.
1.2.3 Long term kidney failure can cause anaemia which can lead to death
2 Renal dialysis
2.1 Patients blood is passed through a dialysis machine - the blood flows on one side of a partially permeable membrane and dialysis fluid flows on the other
2.1.1 Waste products and excess water and ions diffuse across the membrane into the dialysis fluid.
2.2 Patients can feel unwell as waste products and fluid build up
2.3 Each session takes up 3-5 hours, 2-3 sessions a week. It is expensive and inconvenient
2.4 Less risky than transplant
2.5 Haemodialysis: heparin (anti blood clotting) is used, dialysis fluid has the perfect amounts of substances
2.5.1 Peritoneal dialysis: has more freedom but has a catheter inserted in the abdomen. The wall (peritoneum) acts as the natural dialysis barrier.
3 Transplant
3.1 Has to be from the same blood and tissue type.
3.2 Its cheaper, more convenient and the patients feel well.
3.3 The operation is risky.
3.4 The immune system may reject the transplant so the patient has to take immunosuppressant drugs
4 Testing for pregancy
4.1 Pregnancy test detect the hormone 'human chorionic gonadotropin' that's only found in pregnant women
4.1.1 It has antibodies, so if there is that hormone then it will bind to the antibody and turn blue
5 Testing for steriods
5.1 Use gas chromatography to determine the steroid which is travelling at the same speed at the control

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