Whats in a medicine

Robert Hebbs
Mind Map by Robert Hebbs, updated more than 1 year ago
Robert Hebbs
Created by Robert Hebbs over 5 years ago
34
2

Description

A Level Year 13 Chemistry Mind Map on Whats in a medicine, created by Robert Hebbs on 10/18/2014.

Resource summary

Whats in a medicine
1 Alcohols

Annotations:

  •    Name ends in ‘ol’ eg ethanol   
1.1 Primary Alcohol

Annotations:

  •    The alcohol group is attached to a carbon which is only attached to one other carbon atom   
1.1.1 ROH
1.1.2 Mild Oxidation
1.1.2.1 Aldehyde

Annotations:

  •    Name ends in ‘al’ eg ethanal   
1.1.2.1.1 RCHO
1.1.2.2 Acidified Potassium Dichromate

Annotations:

  •    Goes from orange to green   
1.1.2.3 Distillation Equipment

Annotations:

  •    Products evaporate, separate and the condense   
1.1.3 Further Oxidation
1.1.3.1 Carboxylic Acid

Annotations:

  •    Name ends in ‘oic acid’ eg ethanoic acid   
1.1.3.1.1 RCOOH
1.1.3.1.2 Acidity

Annotations:

  •    Carboxylic acids are the most acidic and will react with carbonates and hydroxides. Phenols are slightly acidic but only react with hydroxides. Alcohols are not very acidic and won’t react with either   
1.1.3.1.2.1 Form 'carboxylate ion

Annotations:

  •    Carboxylate anion is stabilised by the negative charge been delocalised between the oxygen atoms   
1.1.3.2 Acidified Potassium Dichromate

Annotations:

  •    Goes from orange to green   
1.1.3.3 Reflux equipment

Annotations:

  •    Reactants and products evaporate and then condense and drip back down into the reaction vessel. This avoids the loss of volatile reactants and products.   
1.2 Secondary Alcohol

Annotations:

  •    The alcohol group is attached to a carbon which is attached to two other carbon atoms   
1.2.1
1.2.2 Oxidation

Annotations:

  •    Secondary alcohol can’t further oxidise   
1.2.2.1 Acidified Potassium Dichromate

Annotations:

  •    Goes from orange to green   
1.2.2.2 Reflux or Distillation Equipment

Annotations:

  •    Reflux equipment will get a better yield   
1.2.2.3 Ketone

Annotations:

  •    Name ends in ‘one’ eg propanone   
1.2.2.3.1
1.3 Tertiary Alcohol

Annotations:

  •    The alcohol group is attached to a carbon which is attached to three other carbon atoms   
1.3.1
1.3.2 Will not oxidise
2 Esters
2.1 Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol
2.2 Catalyst: Conc. sulphuric acid
2.3 Fruity Smell
2.4 RCOOR
3 Phenols
3.1
3.2 Neutral Iron (III) chloride turns purple
3.3 Forms esters with acyl chlorides
3.3.1 RCOCl
3.4 Acidity

Annotations:

  •    Carboxylic acids are the most acidic and will react with carbonates and hydroxides. Phenols are slightly acidic but only react with hydroxides. Alcohols are not very acidic and won’t react with either   
3.4.1 Form phenoxides with strong bases

Annotations:

  •    Phenoxide anion is stabilised by the negative charge been drawn into the delocalised benzene ring   
4 Types of reaction
4.1 Rearrangement

Annotations:

  •   100% atom economy   
4.2 Addition

Annotations:

  •    100% atom economy   
4.2.1 Nucleophilic Addition
4.3 Substitution
4.4 Elimination
4.5 Condensation
5 Drug Trials
5.1 Is it safe?
5.2 Does it work?
5.3 Is it better than existing treatments?
6 Analytical Techniques
6.1 IR Spectra

Annotations:

  •    Using the data sheet identify peaks (normally troughs) quoting the wavenumber of the peak and what it is. Also discuss peaks that are not there as well. Key peaks to look for are carbonyls, carbon-oxygen and OH groups that are alcohols or carboxylic acids (broad)   
6.2 Mass Spec

Annotations:

  •    Identify the common fragments listed below remembering if they are on the spec they are positive, the other fragment is not charged and does not show up.   CH3+ = 15 C2H5+ = 29 C6H5+ = 77 OH+ = 17  
6.2.1 High Resolution

Annotations:

  •    High resolution MS is precise to 4dp enabling accurate isotopic and molecular masses to be identified. Peaks are clearly distinguished and don’t merge into each other   
6.3 Thin-Layer Chromatography

Annotations:

  •    Prepare a model method and diagram for the exam   
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