AQA GCSE B1 Biology

r_kamaly
Mind Map by r_kamaly, updated more than 1 year ago
r_kamaly
Created by r_kamaly over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on AQA GCSE B1 Biology, created by r_kamaly on 10/26/2014.

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AQA GCSE B1 Biology
1 Diet and Energy
1.1 A balanced diet containings: Carbohydrates,Protein,Vitamins,Minerals,Fibre,water and small amounts of fats
1.2 Unbalanced diets can lead to deficiency disease and you can get malnourished
1.3 Metabolic Rate: Rate at which chemical reactions take place in your cells
1.4 Metabolic rate increases during exercise
1.5 High levels of cholesterol increases the chance of developing plaques in the wall of the arteries
1.6 Low Density lipoprotein (LDL): Bad,Causes heart disease High Density Lipoprotein (HDL): Good,Helps protect against disease
2 Pathogens and infections
2.1 Microorganisms that cause disease are called pathogens
2.2 -Bacteria reproduce rapidly inside the body that produce toxins
2.3 Pandemic:A disease that effects a whole country or goes worldwide
2.4 Lymphocytes produce antibodies.Antibodies stick to the pathogens and kill them,Phagocytes digest bacteria to destroy them more easily
2.5 Antitoxins stick to the toxins produced by bacteria to destroy them
3 Drugs and Disease
3.1 Antibiotics kill bacteria Examples: Penicillin,Streptomycin
3.2 Overuse of antibiotics makes bacteria resistant to them
3.3 Natural Selection is when a bacterium is resistant to the antibiotic and reproduces and spreads bacteria
4 Vaccination
4.1 Small amounts of dead viruses that cause disease are injected into the blood
4.2 White blood cells attack the pathogen and make antibodies.they remember the antibody and the body is now immune to the disease
5 Co-ordination,nerves and hormones
5.1 Nerves cells send electrical impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord
5.2 Glands secrete hormones into the blood
5.3 Bloodstream carries hormones around the body
5.4 Cells that transmit electrical impulses are called nerve cells
5.5 Receptors > Nervous system = SENSORY NEORONE
5.6 Impulses from nervous system to effectors=Motor Neorones
6 Reflex Actions
6.1 Reflex arc is a pathway taken by a nerve impulse as it passes from receptor,through the nervous system and to an effector
6.2 Gaps between neurones are called synapses
6.3 Gain water from food drink
6.4 Lose water through breath,sweat urine
6.5 Human tempreture must be kept at 37C this is where enzymes work best
7 Reproductive Hormones
7.1 The pituitary gland secretes FSH causing an egg to mature in the ovaries
7.2 Oestrogen makes inner lining thicker
7.3 Contraceptive pill stops the egg from maturing by stoping FSH being produced
7.4 IVF: In Vitro Fertilisation
7.5 IVF : Eggs are removed and fertilised with the sperm
8 Plant Responses and Hormones
8.1 A growth response to light is a tropism called phototropism
8.2 Auxin is a plant hormone which helps shoots get longer
8.3 A growth response to gravity is called gravitropism or geotropism
9 Developing new drugs
9.1 Taking drugs for fun are called recreational drugs Some are legal but harm the body such as alcahol
9.2 A drug addiction has long term effects such as organ damage
9.3 Drug trials: 1.Tested on human cells in laboratory 2.Human volunteers are given doses,side effects are recorded 3.Drug is tested on target illness and side effects are recoded
9.4 Alcohol and nicotine cause more deaths than any other drug a year
10 Environmental Change
10.1 Non-Living Factors: Global Warming ect.
10.2 Living Factors: Invasion of other organisms
10.3 Lots of sulfur dioxide in the air,species cannot grow properly
11 Competition
11.1 Organisms compete for resources if in short supply
11.2 Males compete for females in order to mate
11.3 Animals may compete for a territory for food and breeding
11.4 Plants that live in dry places have 1.Long roots to reach water underground 2. Small or no leaves,less water evaporating away 3.Tissues that can store water
11.5 Desert animals have large ears to stay cool
11.6 Plants have thorns and poisons to deter predators
12 Food Chains and Energy Flow
12.1 Green plants capture small amounts of energy because some light: 1.miss the leaves 2.hit and then reflect leaves 3. hits leaves but does not reach chlorophyll 4.Reaches chlorophyll but does not absorb because it has a wrong wavelength (colour)
12.2 Very little light is used for photosynthesis the rest is reflected back or goes through the leaves
12.3 Mammals and birds use glucose to provide energy in keeping body tempreture high
12.4 Energy loss of mammals and birds are high
12.5 Snakes and fish stay the same tempereture as their environment
13 The Carbon Cycle
13.1 Photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide+Water=>Glucose+Oxygen
13.2 Carbon dioxide is returned to the air when animals breathe out and when fossil fuels are burned
13.3 Energy is transfurred
14 Genetic Engeneerig
14.1 Engeneered to make insulin
14.2 Glyphosate kill weeds
15 Natural Selection
15.1 Organisms produce offspring,offspring vary because of genes Some have genes for better chance of survival Genes wil pass their offspring
15.2 New forms of genes ive organisms better chance of survival
16 Decay
16.1 To carry out decay bacteria need oxygen,warm temperture for enzymes to work, and moisture for reproduction
16.2 Increasing temperatures of microorganisms slows decay
16.3 Canning,pickling and drying foods stops decay
17 Reproduction
17.1 Chromosomes are long sections of DNA
17.2 Human cells have 46 chromosomes 23 from each parent
17.3 gametes and fertilisation are involved
17.4 Asexual is when individual splits in two
17.5 No variation in asexual (clones)
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